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Analog to Digital Converters

Analog to Digital Converters

Representing a continuously
varying physical quantity by a
sequence of discrete numerical
10 10 10 01 01 00 00 01
Conversion Methods
(selected types, there are others)

Parallel Comparator A/D Converter

Dual Slope Integration
Successive Approximation
Parallel Comparator A/D
Converter /Flash
If N is the number of bits in the
output word….
Then 2N comparators will be
A set of comparators that compare the
input analog voltage: if greater than the
reference voltage , the output of the
comparator will go high .
Pro and Cons

Flash Comparison
Fast (only propagation delay time)
but Expensive (to produce n bit
resolution : (2n -1 ) comparator is
Ex: Flash converters : 8-bit conversion
in 10ns
Successive Approximation
• The Successive-Approximation, which
successively constructs the output during
each cycle.
Successive Approximation A/D Converter
• On the first clock pulse – SAR outputs a high on its
• D/A converter and amplifier convert this value to
• If this voltage is higher than the i/p voltage the
comparator produces low
• If this voltage is lower than the i/p voltage the
comparator produces high
• EOC (End of Conversion ) send all the data out
• If EOC is connected to SC(Start Conversion)–
Continuous conversion
The parallel digital output from SAR is stored in latch. The
latch is coupled with the 8086 to give the digital information as
input to microprocessor. A successive approximation A/D
converter consists of a comparator, a successive approximation
register (SAR),output latches, and a D/A converter.

The main part of the circuit is the 8-bit SAR, whose output is
given to an 8-bit D/A converter.

The analog output Va of the D/A converter is then compared

to an analog signal Vin by the comparator. The output of the
comparator is a serial data input to the SAR.
Till the digital output (8 bits) of the SAR is equivalent to the
analog input Vin, the SAR adjusts itself. The 8-bit latch at the
end of conversation holds onto the resultant digital data output.
Pro and Cons

Successive Approximation
The Happy and Medium
Slope Integration & Ladder
Cheap but Slow
Digital-to-Analog Conversion
• To convert digital values to analog voltages
• Performs inverse operation of the Analog-to-Digital
Converter (ADC)

VOUT  Digital Value
Reference Voltage

Digital Value DAC Analog Voltage

Digital-to-Analog Conversion

• Data in clean binary digital form can be

converted to an analog form by using a
summing amplifier.
• For example, a simple 4-bit D/A converter
can be made with a four-input summing
Digital-to-Analog Conversion

• 2 Basic Approaches

– Weighted Summing Amplifier

– R-2R Network Approach
Weighted Sum DAC
• One way to achieve D/A conversion is to
use a summing amplifier.
• This approach is not satisfactory for a
large number of bits because it requires
too much precision in the summing
Weighted Sum DAC
• This problem is overcome in the R-2R
network DAC.
R-2R Ladder DAC
R-2R Ladder DAC
R-2R Ladder DAC

• The summing amplifier with the R-2R ladder of

resistances shown produces the output where the
D's take the value 0 or 1.
• The digital inputs could be TTL voltages which
close the switches on a logical 1 and leave it
grounded for a logical 0.
• This is illustrated for 4 bits, but can be extended to
any number with just the resistance values R and
Digital to Analog Converters
-Performance Specifications

Poor Resolution(1 bit) Better Resolution(3 bit)

Vout Vout
Desired Analog Desired Analog signal

110 110

8 Volt. Levels
2 Volt. Levels

101 101

100 100

011 011

010 010

001 001

0 0 000

Digital Input Approximate Digital Input