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Ms. Nor Aziyan Mohd Nasir
• Discuss the uses of oils and fats in food
 Review sources and composition of oils and fats.
 Discuss function of fat in food – appearance, emulsions,
flavors, heat transfer, melting point, nutrition, satiety,
shortening, solubility, and texture.
 List the good and bad properties oils and fats – vegetable oils,
hydrogenated fats, essential oils, macerated oils, fatty acids,
saturated of trans fatty acids, and unsaturated fats.
Fats and oil based products
• Edible products • Inedible products
-Shortening -Soap
-Butter -Detergent
-Ghee -Drilling Mud
-Hard Butters -Diesel
-Margarine and -Oleochemicals
Composition of Oil & Fat
A. Major Component

• TRIGLYCERIDES are combination between 1

unit of GLYCEROL and 3 units of FATTY ACIDS

Triglycerides = 1 glycerol + 3 fatty

Glycerol Fatty Acids
Glycerol Fatty Acids

• Fats
• Solid at room temperature

• Oils
• Liquid at room temperature
Sources of Oil and Fat

animals plants

MARINes Synthetics
Function of Fats and Oils In foods
Melting And Crystallisation
• Chocolate
 Hard at ambient temperature
 Molten at mouth temperature
 Polymorphic fats – Need to be ͚tempered
• Confectionery fillings
 Steep melting – cool melting
 The cooling sensation has been associated with almost
instantaneous absorption of the heat of crystallization
due to a steep melting profile
• Margarines and Spreads
 Fast crystallisation to allow solidification after
Melting And Crystallisation – cont.
• Ice cream
 >50% solid fat at 0°C
 Molten at mouth temperature
 Ageing/hardening process dependent on
crystallisation of fat phase
• Shortness in biscuits and pastry
 The more fat present the shorter the texture
 Fat coats flour and inhibits gluten formation
• Emulsions
 Fats give creamy texture to mayonnaise, ice
cream etc
 Oil-in-water emulsions
- Butter
- Margarines and spreads
Texture – cont.
Water-in-oil emulsions
- Milk, cream
- Mayonnaise
- Salad dressings
• Whipped creams (dairy and non-dairy)
 Fat crystallises around the air bubbles
• Cake batters
 Fat crystallises around the air bubbles protecting
them during early stages of baking
• Bread doughs
 High melting fats hold the risen structure in place
during early stages of baking
Heat Transfer And Lubrication
• Frying
 Frying oils act as a heat transfer medium to the
foods being fried
• Lubrication
 Machine oils and bread dough dividers
- Vegetable alternative to mineral oils
Mouth lubrication
- High fat foods have a creaminess and
lubrication when consumed that makes
them easier to digest
Appearance and Flavour
• Chocolate and confectionery coatings
 Imparts gloss
 Can also affect or inhibit bloom formation
• Fat-soluble flavours
 Mint, orange oil, lemon oil
• Infused oils
 Garlic infused olive oil
 Chilli infused olive oil
• Flavours produced during frying, baking
• Off-flavours due to oxidation, hydrolysis
– Calories
– Essential Fatty Acids
– Carrier for fat – soluble vitamin
– Provide satiety
Good Fat Vs Bad Fat
Saturated Fat
Primarily animal-based, found in high-fat meats and dairy
•fatty cuts of beef, pork, and lamb
•dark chicken meat and poultry skin
•high fat dairy foods (whole milk, butter, cheese, sour cream,
ice cream)
•tropical oils (coconut oil, palm oil, cocoa butter)
Excess saturated fat has been shown to increase blood
cholesterol levels and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels,
which can increase your risk for heart disease and possibly type 2
diabetes, especially when combined with a diet high in refined
Good Fat Vs Bad Fat – cont.
Trans Fat
Short for “trans fatty acids,” appears in foods that contain partially
hydrogenated vegetable oils. You might find trans fat in:
• fried foods (French fries, doughnuts, deep-fried fast foods)
• margarine (stick and tub)
• vegetable shortening
• baked goods (cookies, cakes, pastries)
• processed snack foods (crackers, microwave popcorn)

Trans fat can raise LDL cholesterol, also known as “bad”

cholesterol. Trans fat can also suppress high-density lipoprotein
(HDL) levels, or “good” cholesterol. Trans fats, therefore, can raise
your heart disease risk threefold higher than saturated fat intake.
Good Fat Vs Bad Fat
Monounsaturated Fat
They help lower levels of bad (LDL) cholesterol, and some raise
the levels of good (HDL) cholesterol
• nuts (almonds, cashews, peanuts, pecans, walnuts)
• vegetable oils (olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil,
corn oil, soybean oil)
• Seed oils (grapeseed oil, flaxseed oil)
• peanut butter and almond butter
• avocado
Good Fat Vs Bad Fat
Polyunsaturated Fat
Like monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat can decrease
your risk of heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol levels.
A certain type of this fat, called omega-3 fatty acids, have been
shown to be particularly beneficial for your heart.
Omega 3:
- Salmon
- Herring
- Sardines
- Trout
You can also find omega-3s in flaxseed, walnuts, and canola oil
Good Fat Vs Bad Fat
Polyunsaturated Fat

Another example of polyunsaturated fat is omega-6 fatty

acids which can be found in

• tofu
• roasted soy beans and soy nut butter
• walnuts
• seeds (sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds)
• vegetable oils (corn oil, safflower oil, sesame oil,
soybean oil, sunflower oil)
• soft margarine (liquid or tub)

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