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Description of Chocolate
Picture of the Cacao Tree
 Chocolate is made from
cocoa beans found on the
cacao tree.
• The cacao tree was first
discovered in the South
American rainforest.
 The three main
ingredients in chocolate
are chocolate liquor, cocoa
powder, and cocoa butter.
 Different kinds of
chocolate use varying
amounts of these 3
How Chocolate is Made
Picture of Cocoa
• Cocoa pods are harvested • Cocoa butter
Picture ofPods is Beans
Cocoa extracted.
• Pods are crushed and • Cocoa powder is also
fermented. created when beans are
• Cocoa beans are taken out ground.
of the pods and then dried. • Process creates chocolate
• Beans are roasted, graded, liquor, cocoa powder, and
and then ground. cocoa butter.
• Grinding the beans creates • Ingredients are blended
a liquid called chocolate back together to create
liquor. different kinds of
– Chocolate liquor - made chocolates.
mostly of fat called cocoa
Types of Chocolate
 Sweet Chocolate
• Contains no milk solids
• Cannot contain less than
15% chocolate liquor
 Dark Bittersweet Chocolate
• Contains the most chocolate
• It is sweet chocolate that
cannot contain less than
35% chocolate liquor.
 Semi Sweet Chocolate
• Similar to dark bittersweet
 Baking Chocolate
• Contains no sweeteners and
no milk.
Types of Chocolate
 Milk Chocolate
• Contains milk and sugar,
which differs from
bittersweet and semisweet
• Cannot contain less than
12% milk and cannot
contain less than 10%
chocolate liquor.
• Can contain other
ingredients but must comply
with regulations.
 White Chocolate
• Technically not real
• Contains no chocolate liquor,
which is one of the main
ingredients in chocolate.
• It’s made of cocoa butter,
milk, and sugar.
History of Chocolate
 Dates back to about 1,500 years ago.
 First found in Mayan and Aztec Civilizations.
• Mayans used cacao beans to create a cold, unsweetened,
spicy chocolate beverage. This was the first form of
• Aztecs came across cacao beans through trade. They
named the spicy drink xocolatl (bitter water).
• Cacao beans played important roles in both Mayan and
Aztec Civilizations.
This scene was painted on an ancient
Maya vessel, which reveals how
people drank chocolate as a beverage
and often presented it to their gods as
an offering.
History of Chocolate
• The chocolate drink was first brought to Europe by
Spanish conquistador, Hernan Cortes.
– The drink was sweetened to match European tastes.
– The drink spread from Spanish courts to other European courts.
– The drink was also prescribed to people for depression and used in
love and death potions.
• In the late 18th century French and Dutch processors
experimented with chocolate liquid.
– This lead to the production of chocolate powder, which then led to
the production of the first solid chocolate.
– The first solid chocolate was believed to have been sold in England
in the mid-1800s.
Chocolate Facts
 Chocolate Consumption:
• Americans consume over 3.1 billion pounds of chocolate every year,
which is about 11.7 pounds per person.
• Milk Chocolate is the most popular among Americans, followed by
dark chocolate and then white chocolate.
 Chocolate contains more than 300 known chemicals.
• Flavanols antioxidants
• Theobromine
• Caffeine stimulants
• Tyramine
Central nervous system stimulants
• Pehnyletylamine
• Anandamide
 Chocolate is considered a mood food.
• Contains an amino acid called L-tryptophan. This increases
serotonin in the brain, which is a calming hormone.
• Said to be nature’s own “antidepressant.”
Chocolate Myths and Truths
Myth: Causes acne. Truth: Studies found no connection
between eating chocolate and
Myth: High in cholesterol. Truth: Chocolate is low in
cholesterol and low in animal
Myth: Causes tooth decay. Truth: Studies found that tooth
decay is not as big of a problem
as once thought. Tooth decay is
mostly caused by poor hygiene.
Myth: High in caffeine. Truth: Chocolate is not high in
caffeine and contains less
caffeine than coffee.
Myth: Causes weight gain. Truth: When eaten in moderation,
chocolate does not cause weight
Myth: Is addictive. Truth: People who say they are
addicted are just experiencing
strong cravings. The
characteristics of an addiction
such as tolerance and
withdrawal and chemical
changes in the brain are not
associated with eating chocolate.
Potential Health Benefits
Chocolate may be good for the heart.
 Chocolate contains chemicals like those found in red
wine and green tea.
 Helps improve circulation
 Helps cut down blood pressure
 Chocolate contains flavanols.
 Helps in preventing the oxidations of “bad” cholesterol, which
reduces the stickiness of blood platelets and improve blood
vessel elasticity.
Theobromine, found in chocolate, was found to
treat coughs better than codeine.
• farmers cut the ripe pods from the tree wit
h a sharp knife/machete attached to a pole
to reach pods that are high in the tree
• farmers use a heavy wooden hammer to s
plit open the pods.
• They then scoop out the beans and pulp w
ith a knife.
• Fermentation has to be carried out within 24-48 hours
after breaking the cocoa pod.
• It takes about 5-7 days on average and varies accord
ing to the species.
• Forastero - 5–7 days, Criollo- 1-3 days
• It is responsible for the chocolate flavor and aroma in
cocoa and also external browning of beans.
• Cocoa beans do not themselves undergo a fermentat
ion at all
• It is pulp surrounding the beans which is fermented,
while simultaneous ‘curing’ process takes place withi
n the beans
• Cocoa beans are either placed in
large, shallow, heated trays or covered with larg
e banana leaves.
• If the climate is right, they may be simply heated
by the sun.
• Workers come along periodically and stir them u
p so that all of the beans come out equally ferme
• Fermentation is done when the beans turn brow
• Fermentation kills the beans, preventing them fr
om germinating later, and also develops flavor pr
ecursors that are essential to tasty chocolate.
• After fermentation, the cocoa seeds must be drie
d before they can be scooped into sacks and shi
pped to chocolate manufacturers.
• Farmers simply spread the fermented seeds on t
rays and leave them in the sun to dry.
• The drying process usually takes about a week a
nd results in seeds that are about half of their ori
ginal weight.
• This reduces the weight of the beans and makes
them less susceptible to molds.
• The beans is bagged n transported.
Importance of drying
• To take out astringency & bitter taste
• Loosening of the shell from the bean
• Moisture content reduced to 6% - prevent
• cleaning, inspecting and sorting the beans at the
• Roasted in special equipment at a temperature o
f 130−150 °С
• The outer shell of the beans is removed, and the
inner cocoa bean meat is broken into small piec
es called "cocoa nibs.“
Importance of roasting
1. Develops the flavor of the chocolate
• Heating the beans produces chemical reactions
known as the Maillard reactions (amino acids an
d sugars react to form tasty chemicals)
• Roasting also drives off the more volatile acids t
hat are naturally present in cacao beans
2. Kills bacteria
3. Puffs up the shells – easier to remove
from the nibs
• Grinding is the process by which cocoa nibs are
ground into " cocoa liquor“.
• The grinding process generates heat and the dry
granular consistency of the cocoa nib is then turn
ed into a liquid as the high amount of fat contain
ed in the nib melts.
• The heat produced during grinding causes cocoa
fat to melt and the melted fat carries with it, in su
spension, finely ground particles of cocoa. This is
known as ‘Cocoa mass’, ‘Chocolate liquor’ or ‘Bit
ter chocolate’
• This mass solidifies at about 30 ̊C
• Filter-pressing to separate out a major part
of fat (cocoa butter)
• The amount of fat left in the pressed cake
can be varied by the conditions of pressing
• The pressed cake is used for producing co
coa powder
• Cocoa butter
also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, pure
, edible vegetable fat.
• Cocoa powder
End product of cocoa solids which are low-fat c
omponents and are rich in flavonoids
• Chocolate
A food preparation in the form of a paste or soli
d block made from roasted and ground cacao s
eeds, typically sweetened.
• Cocoa liquor, sugar, cocoa butter
= plain dark chocolate
+ milk or milk powder and vanilla
= milk chocolate
- cocoa liquor
= white chocolate
• intensive mixing at high temperature
• A conche (container filled with metal beads
) acts as grinder, also heavy rollers can be
– more homogeneous consistency
– the length of the process determines the final
smoothness and quality of the chocolate
• long and complex process
• chocolate mass must be cooled
– specific heat treatment
• the problem: cocoa-butter is a polymorphic fat
– crystallizes and congeals
– takes different consistencies
• the purpose:
– to assure that only the best form is present
• the uniform sheen and crisp bite
• best appearance and mouth feel
• most stable crystals so the texture and appearance will not d
egrade over time
• pouring into heated moulds
• adding extras, if wanted (like nuts)
• the chocolate solidifies
• packed
• ideal temperature between 15 and 19
• relative humidity of less than 50 %
• stored away from other foods
– can absorbs different aromas
Difference between
white and milk chocolate
White chocolate Milk chocolate

• Two kinds of white chocolat • by definition: less than 30

e % chocolate
 not chocolate. • Milk-chocolate-candy: pri
• "Real" white chocolate = can marily sugar + spices with
dy bark almost no chocolate
• Allergic to cocoa  contains • Milk chocolate
no cocoa. 12 cocoa beans
• Ingrediens (primarily): cocoa • “Real” chocolate
butter, sugar, milk and vanill 99 cocoa beans
a, without any cocoa flavorin
Strictly speaking:
chocolate is any product based 99% on cocoa solid and/or cacao fat
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