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María Camila Yañez Turizo

What is a cell?

Cells are the basic

building blocks of all
living things.


Bacteria Archaea


 The word prokaryotic cell comes from the Greek

pro that means “before” and Kyron that means
“kernel” referring to the concept nucleus.
 Characteristics:
 Cell wall
 Cell membrane
 Flagella
 Ribosomes
 Nucleoid

The concept of eukaryote cell comes from the greek

words “true” “karnel” meaning true nucleus.
Organells :
 Endoplasmic recticulum  Nucleus
 Ribosomes  Chloroplast
 Centrosomes
 Lysosomes  Vacules
 Golgi apparatus
 Mitochondira
Comparison of Prokaryotic and
Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
◦ DNA free in the cytoplasm ◦ DNA encolsed on the nucleus
◦ No miochondria ◦ Mitchocondria presen
◦ Ribosomes ◦ Ribosomes
◦ Doesn’t need complementation
◦ It’s conformed by organells
form organells
◦ Their size is less han 10 ◦ Size more tan 10 micrometers
micrometers ◦ Can be unicelular organisms or
◦ Unicelular organisms multicelular organisms
1.All organisms are composed of
one or more cells
2.Cells are the smalle units of life
3.All cells come form pre- existing
Although there are
exeptions for these
posulates …
Mitochondria & chloroplast
These two organells can be consider an exeption
to the cell because they contain genetic material
and can reproduce in a cell.
striated muscle cells
 These muscle cells have more than once nucleus per cell .
 Muscle cells fuse to form fibers that are very long (300mm).
 These are surrounded by one plasma membrane although they are multi
 This does not conform to the standard view of a small single nuclei within a
fungal hyphae
 Fungial hyphae have very large cells
 There are mutli- nucleated
 It has continuous cytoplasm
 Fungal Hyphae have cell walls composed of
 Challenges the idea that a cell is a single unit
Giant algae
 This is a unicellular organism that has
a gigantic size of 5-100 mm.
 This organism is complex in form
 It challenges the idea that cell are the
smallest unit of life
 Although virus are not considered
Virus alive they only can “recrate” more of
their DNA or RNA in a host cell
 Virus are formed by a coat of proteins
, nucleic acid and RNA or DNA.
 If virus can infect other viruses
wouldn’t that challenge the idea that
cells are the smallest unit of life?
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13,17,19,21,27). Harlow [England]: Pearson Education.
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from http://www.bionova.org.es/biocast/tema10.htm
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