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Mutiny, any overt act of defiance or attack upon military (including naval) authority
by two or more persons subject to such authority. The term is occasionally used to
describe nonmilitary instances of defiance or attack—such as mutiny on board a
merchant ship or a rising of slaves in a state in which slavery is recognized by law or
custom. Mutiny should be distinguished from revolt or rebellion, which involve a
more widespread defiance and which generally have a political objective.
Rizal was still very young when the mutiny broke out. Although
at his tender age, Rizal was already cognizant of the deplorable
conditions of the country. Originally, his plan was to take up
priesthood and become a Jesuit father (De Ocampo, 1969).
When he heard of the martyrdom of Gomburza, he changed his
mind and swore to dedicate his life to vindicate the victims of
Spanish oppression. Rizal at this time was only 11 years old. In
his letter to Ponce, dated April 18, 1889 ( National Heroes
Commission, 1963) he said “ Without 1872 there would not be
now either Plaridel or Jaena, nor Sanciano, or would there exist
brave and generous Filipino colonies in Europe; Without 1873,
Rizal would be a Jesuit now and instead of writing the Noli Me
Tangere, would have written the opposite”.
The Cavite mutiny of 1872 was an uprising of Filipino military
personnel of Fort San Felipe, the Spanish arsenal in Cavite,
Philippine Islands on January 23, 1872. Around 200 locally recruited
colonial troops and laborers rose up in the belief that it would
elevate to a national uprising. The mutiny was unsuccessful, and
government soldiers executed many of the participants and began
to crack down on a burgeoning Philippines nationalist movement.
Many scholars believe that the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 was the
beginning of Filipino nationalism that would eventually lead to
the Philippine Revolution of 1896.
The Cavite Mutiny led to the persecution of prominent
Filipinos; secular priests Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and
Jacinto Zamora—who would then be collectively named
GomBurZa—were tagged as the masterminds of the
uprising. The priests were charged with treason and
sedition by the Spanish military tribunal—a ruling believed
to be part of a conspiracy to stifle the growing popularity
of Filipino secular priests and the threat they posed to the
Spanish clergy. The GomBurZa were publicly executed, by
garrote, on the early morning of February 17, 1872 at
This portrait represents the three
Filipino priest, GOMBURZA that
was really closed during the time
Jose Rizal is alive. We all know
that GOMBURZA stands for
Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and
Jacinto Zamora and the novel of
Jose Rizal, El Filibusterismo was
dedicated to the three priests.
Mariano Gomez – born
on August 2, 1799 at
Santa Cruz Manila by
Marina Guard and
Francisco Gomez, he was
designated as head priest
in Cavite in 1824 and was
a member of GOMBURZA
later on. He was executed
during the Cavite Mutiny
in 1872.
Jose Apolonio Burgos – was
a Filipino mestizo secular
priest, accused of mutiny by
the Spanish colonial
authorities in the Philippines
in the 19th century he was
born on February 9 1837 by
Florencia Garcia and Don
Jose Burgos in Vigan Ilocos
Sur. He was executed along
with Mariano Gomez and
Jacinto Zamora.
Jacinto Zamora – born
August 14, 1835 in Manila.
He was placed in a mock trial
and summarily executed in
Manila along with two other
clergymen. He was a Roman
Catholic priest. The
Gomburza execution was
carried out on February 17,
1872 at Bagumbayan Field in
Manila during Cavite mutiny
in the 19th century.