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Warm Up


Rational Expressions,
Vertical Asymptotes,
and Holes
Objective
Find
Asymptotes and
Holes
Relevance
Learn how to evaluate
data from real world
applications that fit
into a quadratic
model.
Rational Expression
 It is the quotient of two polynomials.

 A rational function is a function defined by a


rational expression.

Examples:

x2 3x 2  2 x  5
y y 3
x5 x  4 x2  5x  7

Not Rational:
4x x
y y
x2 x2  5
1
Find the domain: f ( x) 
x

Graph it:
1
Find the domain: f ( x) 
x

Graph it:
1
Find the domain: f ( x) 
x2

Graph it:
1
Find the domain: f ( x) 
x2

Graph it:
Vertical Asymptote
 If x – a is a factor of the denominator of a
rational function but not a factor of the
numerator, then x = a is a vertical asymptote
of the graph of the function.
x3
Find the domain: f ( x)  2
x  x  12

Graph it using the


graphing calculator.
What do you see?
x3
Find the domain: f ( x)  2
x  x  12

Graph it using the


graphing calculator.
What do you see?
Hole (in the graph)
 If x – b is a factor of both the numerator and
denominator of a rational function, then there
is a hole in the graph of the function where
x = b, unless x = b is a vertical asymptote.

 The exact point of the hole can be found by


plugging b into the function after it has been
simplified.
Find the domain and identify
vertical asymptotes & holes.
x 1
f ( x)  2
x  2x  3
Find the domain and identify
vertical asymptotes & holes.
x 1
f ( x)  2
x  2x  3
Find the domain and identify
vertical asymptotes & holes.
x
f ( x)  2
x 4
Find the domain and identify
vertical asymptotes & holes.
x
f ( x)  2
x 4
Find the domain and identify
vertical asymptotes & holes.
x 5
f ( x)  2
2x  x  3
Find the domain and identify
vertical asymptotes & holes.
x 5
f ( x)  2
2x  x  3
Find the domain and identify
vertical asymptotes & holes.
3  2 x  x2
f ( x)  2
x  x2
Find the domain and identify
vertical asymptotes & holes.
3  2 x  x2
f ( x)  2
x  x2
Horizontal Asymptotes
& Graphing
Horizontal Asymptotes
 Degree of numerator = Degree of denominator

coefficient of numerator
Horizontal Asymptote: y
coefficient of denominator

 Degree of numerator < Degree of denominator

Horizontal Asymptote: y0

 Degree of numerator > Degree of denominator

Horizontal Asymptote: none


Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:
x2
f ( x) 
2x  3
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:
x2
f ( x) 
2x  3
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:
x 1
f ( x)  2
x  2x  3
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:
x 1
f ( x)  2
x  2x  3
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:
x 2  3x  4
f ( x) 
x4
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:
x 2  3x  4
f ( x) 
x4
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:

3x 2  7 x  6
f ( x) 
x2  9
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:

3x 2  7 x  6
f ( x) 
x2  9
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:

 x  3
2

f ( x) 
x2
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:

 x  3
2

f ( x) 
x2
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:
3x 2
f ( x)  2
2x  5
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:
3x 2
f ( x)  2
2x  5
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:

x
f ( x)  2
x  2x  3
Find all asymptotes & holes & then graph:

x
f ( x)  2
x  2x  3
Slant Asymptotes (Oblique)
 Find a slant asymptote when the H.A.
DNE.
 Occurs when the degree of the top is
exactly 1 more than the degree of the
bottom.

 To find the slant asymptote, we divide them


and the answer is the asymptote.
Slant Asymptote

If the degree of the numerator is exactly one more than the degree of the
denominator, then the graph of the function has a slant (or oblique) asymptote.
Find the oblique (slant)
x2  4
asymptote: f ( x) 
x 1
x 1
x 1 x  0x  4
2

The line x + 1 is an oblique asymptote


Find the slant asymptote: x2  9
f ( x) 
x 1
x 1
x 1 x  0x  9
2

The line x - 1 is an oblique asymptote


x  4x
3
Find the slant asymptote:
f x   2
x  3x  2
x3
x  3x  2 x  0 x  4 x
2 3 2

The line x +3 is an oblique asymptote


Slant Asymptote

Sketch the graph:


Slant Asymptote

Sketch the graph:


Assignments
CW: Polynomial Review

HW: Textbook p.148 (17 – 23) Odd and


(37 – 41) Odd

Textbook p. 157 (18, 22, 24, 32, 52, 54)

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