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# Negatively

charged
electrons

Positively
charged
nucleus

Stationary
Orbit
Postulates of
bohr’s model
1) An electron can revolve around the nucleus in certain fixed orbits of definit
energy without emission of any radiant energy. Such orbits are called
stationary orbits.

## 2) An electron can make a transition from a stationary state of higher

energy E2 to a state of lower energy E1 and in doing so, it emits a single
photon of frequency,
ν=E2−E1h where h is the Planck's constant.
Conversely, on absorbing an energy, E2−E1 when the electron is at energy E1,
the electron can make a transition from E1 to E2.

3) Only those orbits are allowed for which the angular momentum of the
electron is an integral multiple of h2π,
Thus, L=nh2π where n=0,1,2,.....
velocity of
electron

Bohr’s postulates

radius of energy of
various orbits electron
Calculation of radius of
Bohr orbit
kZe 2
n2h2
u2  2
u 
mr 42m2r2

## kZe 2 n2h2 n2h2

 2 2 2 r 2
mr 4 m r 4 mkZe 2

n2 0
r  0.529  A
Z
nh
mur  (1)
2
kZe2 mu2
 (2)
r 2
r

## Dividing (1) by (2),we get:

2kZe 2 u is in m/s
u
nh
u is the velocity with which the electron revolves in
an orbit
Total energy(T.E)  P.E  K.E

1 kZe2
K.E  mu2 P.E  
2 r

1 kZe2
T.E  mu2  2
2 r
mu2 kZe2
 2
r r

kZe2
mu  2

r
kZe2 kZe2 kZe2
E  
2r r 2r

## Substituting the value of r we get

P.E. = 2K.E.
2 Z e mk
2 2 4 2
K.E. = -Total energy
En  
n2h2
We know that

mu2 kZe2
 2
r r

kZe2
mu 
2

r
kZe2 kZe2 kZe2
E  
2r r 2r

## Substituting the value of r we get

P.E. = 2K.E.
2 Z e mk
2 2 4 2
K.E. = -Total energy
En  
n2h2
Z
vn  2.18  108 cm / sec
n

Bohr’s postulates

Z2
En  13.6  2 eV per atom
n2 0 n
rn  0.529  A
Z 19 Z2
  21.8  10  2 J per atom
n
Dual Nature of Electron

## (1) In 1924, the French physicist, Louis de Broglie suggested that i

light has electron, behaves both as a material particle and as a
wave.
(2) This presented a new wave mechanical theory of matter.
According to this theory, small particles like electrons when in
motion possess wave properties.
(3) According to de-broglie, the wavelength associated with a
particle of mass m, moving with velocity v is given by the
relation λ = h/mv where h = Planck’s constant.
(4) This can be derived as follows according to Planck’s equation,
E = hv = hc /λ ∴ v=c/λ(energy of photon (on the basis of
Einstein’s mass energy relationship) E = mc2,
Equating both hc/λ = mc2 or λ = h/mc which is same as de-
Broglie relation. (∴ mc = p)
(5) This was experimentally verified by Davisson and Germer by
observing diffraction effects with an electron beam. Let the
electron is accelerated with a potential of V than the Kinetic
energy is
(1/2) mv2 = eV; m2V2 = 2eVm
mv = √2eVm = P;λ = h/√2eVm
(6) If Bohr’s theory is associated with de-Broglie’s equation then
wave length of an electron can be determined in bohr’s orbit and
relate it with circumference and multiply with a whole number
2πr = nλ or λ = (2πr/2π) From de-Broglie equation, λ = (h/mv).
Thus h/mv = (2πr/n) or mvr = (nh/2π)

## (7) The de-Broglie equation is applicable to all material objects but

it has significance only in case of microscopic particles. Since, we
come across macroscopic objects in our everyday life, de-broglie
relationship has no significance in everyday life.
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is
impossible to know both the velocity and the
position of a particle at the same time.

## • This limitation is critical when dealing with small

particles such as electrons.
• But it does not matter for ordinary-sized objects such
as cars or airplanes.
• To locate an electron, you might strike it with a photon.
• The electron has such a small mass that striking it with a
photon affects its motion in a way that cannot be
predicted accurately.
• The very act of measuring the position of the electron
changes its velocity, making its velocity uncertain.

## Before collision: After collision:

A photon strikes The impact
an electron changes the
during an electron’s
attempt to velocity, making
observe the it uncertain.
electron’s
position.
• Small, dense, positively charged
nucleus surrounded by electron
clouds of probability.
• Does not define an exact path an
electron takes around the nucleus.
• Electron cloud – the volume in
which the electron is found 90% of
the time
•Quantum mechanics: describes electron
energies and locations by a wave equation
Wave function solution of wave equation
Each wave function is an orbital,y

## •A plot of y 2 describes where electron most

likely to be
•Electron cloud has no specific boundary so
we show most probable area
Shrodinger Wave
equation
•Corresponds to the energy levels 1 through
n. However, we will only deal with 1-7.
•Average distance from the nucleus increases
with increasing principal quantum number,
therefore n designates the size of the electron
cloud
•Maximum number of electrons in each
energy level is calculated by 2n2 where n =
the energy level (1-7).
• It is 2nd quantum number

## • The number of sublevels equals the value of

the principal quantum number (n) for that
level.

s, p, d, f.

## • The l number designates the shape of the

electron cloud.
• It is 3rd quantum number (m)
• The space occupied by a pair of
electrons in a certain sublevel.
• Each orbital can hold two
electrons.
• m represents the orientation in
space of the orbitals (x axis, y axis,
z axis)
• It is the 4th quantum number

## • Distinguishes between the electrons

in the same orbital.

## • describes the electrons spin as either

clockwise or counter-clockwise
Rules for filling of orbitals:
• Aufbau Principle – electrons enter orbitals
of lowest energy first.
• Pauli Exclusion Principle – only 2 electrons
can occupy an orbital and they must have
opposite spins.
• Hund’s Rule – When electrons occupy
orbitals of equal energy (degenerate
orbitals), one electron enters each orbital
until all the orbitals contain one with
parallel spins, then they will pair up.
Electronic configuration
of some elements
Compiled by –Rachit
Modi