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COMPUTER

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of


arithmetic or logical operations automatically.
The ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a
program
A computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central
processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory.
The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a
sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in
response to stored information.
Peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, and input/output
devices that perform both functions.
COMPUTER HARDWARE
Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer.
Also referred to as the machinery or the equipment of the computer.
Examples of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and
the processing unit.
Usually can be divided in following
1. Monitor
2. Motherboard.
3. CPU (Microprocessor).
4. Main memory (RAM).
5. Expansion cards.
6. Power supply unit.
7. Optical disc drive.
8. Hard disk drive (HDD).
9. Keyboard.
10. Mouse.
MONITOR
A computer monitor or a computer display is an electronic visual display for
computers.
A monitor usually consists of
• Display device
• Circuitry
• Casing
• Power supply.
The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal
display (TFT-LCD) or a flat panel LED display
Older monitors used a cathode ray tubes (CRT).
It can be connected to the computer via VGA, HDMI, DisplayPort, Thunderbolt, or
other proprietary connectors and signals.
MOTHERBOARD
A motherboard is an electronic circuit board in a computer which interconnects
hardware devices attached to it.
At a minimum it includes one or more Central processing units, and the main
processing activity of the computer takes place on it. However, other connected
printed circuit boards may contain their own pre-processing or post-processing
CPUs, to take some of the load off of the motherboard; these, together with other
plug-in boards without CPUs, may be called "daughter boards." It was called a
"mother" board in relation to these.
A PC motherboard may have a series of sockets, allowing daughter boards to be
plugged in directly. Other connectors on the motherboard allow communication
through cables with various peripheral devices, both inside and outside the
computer case.
MOTHERBOARD PORTS
Ports are used by a motherboard to interface with electronics both inside and outside of the
computer.
Serial ports were most often used to connect a mouse or modem.
PS/2 ports (now outdated) were for connecting peripherals such as your keyboard and mouse to
the computer.
Parallel ports are used to connect other peripherals such as joysticks, and more commonly,
printers. Similar to the serial port, this technology is slowly being phased out in favor of USB.
USB, short for Universal Serial Bus, is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that
defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection,
communication, and power supply between computers and electronic devices.
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the
instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and
input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
The term has been used in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s.
Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control
unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as
main memory and I/O circuitry.
RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORY
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. A random-access memory
device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of
the physical location of data inside the memory.
RAM is normally associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where
stored information is lost if power is removed.
Other types of non-volatile memories exist that allow random access for read operations, but either
do not allow write operations or have other kinds of limitations on them. These include most
types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash.
EXPANSION SLOTS & CARDS
Slots are an opening in a computer where a circuit board can be inserted to add new capabilities
Graphic cards- are also called video card's or a video adapter. They are in all PCs. Graphic cards
convert signals into video signals so the images can be displayed on the monitor. While many
graphics cards are built into the motherboard these days.
Sound card - also referred to as an audio card facilitates the input and output of audio signals to
and from a computer under the control of computer programs.
Network Interface Cards can be a network card, network adapter, LAN Adapter or NIC (network
interface card). They are a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to
communicate over a computer network.
HARD DISK
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is a data storage device used for storing
and retrieving digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated
with magnetic material. The platters are paired with magnetic heads arranged on a moving
actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces. Data is accessed in a random-
access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order
and not only sequentially.
HDDs are a type of non-volatile memory, retaining stored data even when powered off.