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CULTURE

What Is Culture?
1. SOCIAL GROUP

A. Culture – is the way of life of a


group of people who share
similar beliefs and customs.

B. Eight traits of culture – when


studying culture, geographers
look at the following eight
traits of culture:
2. LANGUAGE

A. dialect – a local form of a


language that differs from the
main language.
B. language is used to share
information which makes it one
of the strongest unifying forces
for a culture.
3. RELIGION
- helps people answer basic
questions about life’s meaning
4. DAILY LIFE
a. food and dress
5. HISTORY
a culture group has a shared
history which helps them shape
how they view the world
6. ARTS
- paintings, sculptures, architecture,
dance, music, theater, and
literature.
7. GOVERMENTS
- the types of government can
reflect a country’s culture
MONARCY
- kings & queens inherit ruler ship

DICTATORS
-control & rule as they wish or
see fit

DEMOCRACY

- the power of the government is


held by elected officials (we have
voted for)
CHAPTER 3
CULTURE
CULTURE IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH A PERSON
BECOMES ALL THAT THEY WERE CREATED
CAPABLE OF BEING.

- THOMAS CARLYLE (1975-1881)


SCOTTISH LITERACY WRITER
AS AN ASIAN CHINESE CULTURAL BACKGROUND
, MY VALUES ARE FOR A GOVERNMENT WHICH
IS HONEST, EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT.

- LEE KUAN YEW, PRIME MINISTER OF


SINGAPORE FROM 1959-2004
GOOD TASTE, TOGETHER WITH DISCIPLINE AND
EXCELLENCE ARE THE THREE BASIC VALUES WE
UPHOLD AND CONSISTENTLY PROMOTE IN THE
CITY.
- BAYANI F. FERNANDO, MAYOR OF MARIKINA
CITY FORM 1992-2001
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
- TO DEFINE CULTURE AND SOCIETY AS A
COMPLEX
- TO IDENTIFY THE ASPECTS, CHARACTERISTICS
AND COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
- TO DESCRIBE AND UNDERSTAND THE
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF CULTURE AND
RELATE THESE IN CONTEXT
- TO HAVE A DEEPER APPRECIATION OF ASIAN
AND FILIPINO CULTURE HERITAGE
- TO UNDERSTAND ETHNOCENTRISM AND
CULTURAL RELATIVISM AS ORIENTATIONS IN
VIEWING OTHER CULTURE
BRAIN TEASER GAME

DIRECTION: CONNECT ALL THE DOTS WITH


FOUR STRAIGHT LINES. DO NOT LIFT YOUR
PENCIL OFF THE PAPER. DO NOT RETRACE
ANY LINE . LINES MAY CROSS IF
NECESSARY.
QUESTIONS
1. WHY IS IT SO HARD TO UNDERSTAND
OTHERS’ POINT OF VIEWS?

2. WHY IS IT THAT MOST OF US DO NOT THINK


ABOUT GOING OUT OF THE BOUNDARIES?
CONCEPT OF CULTURE
• IN THE GENERAL SENSE, CULTURE IS A WAY
OF LIFE. BRITISH ANTHROPOLOGIST AND
FOUNDER OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY,
EDWARD B. TAYLOR (1832-1917) COINED THE
TERM CULTURE WHEN HE PUBLISHED HIS
BOOK PRIMITIVE CULTURE IN 1871 AND GAVE
THE FIRST DEFINITION OF CULTURE TAKEN IN
ITS WIDE ETHNOGRAPHIC SENSE AS;
• …. THAT COMPLEX WHOLE WHICH INCLUDES
KNOWLEDGE, BELIEF, ARTS LAW, MORALS,
CUSTOMS, AND ANY OTHER CAPABILITIES
AND HABITS ACQUIRED BY MAN AS A
MEMBER OF SOCIETY.
CULTURE IS SOMETHING THAT UNITES
PEOPLE.
- ANASTASIYA OF RUSSIA
TECHNICALLY, IT REFERS TO THE TOTALITY OF
WHAT MAN HAS LEARNED AS A MEMBER OF
SOCIETY. CULTURE GIVES THE DISTINCT
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GROUP OF PEOPLE.
PEOPLE DEVELOP A CULTURE OF THEIR OWN
OUT OF THEIR LEARNING EXPERIENCES FROM
THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE. THERE ARE
THREE LAYERS OF CULTURE IN SOCIETY
1. CULTURAL UNIVERSAL
- THESE PERTAIN TO CULTURAL ELEMENTS,
PATTERNS, PRACTICES OR ACTIVITIES THAT ARE
COMMON AND SIMILAR ACROSS CULTURES.
2. MAINSTREAM CULTURE
- THIS IS THE “CULTURAL STEM” OF SOCIETY OR THE
GENERAL PREVAILING CULTURE WHICH
DIFFERENTIATES SOCIETIES APART SUCH AS
FILIPINO VALUES, FILIPINO TRAITS, FILIPINO
CUISINE, NATIONAL COSTUME, ETC. 3. SUBCULTURE
- THIS IS CULTURE UNIQUE TO RESPECTIVE
PARTICULAR GROUPS OF PEOPLE IN THE SOCIETY
THAT IDENTFY AND DISTINGUISHES THEM FROM
THE REST SUCH AS GOTHIC CULTURE, GENDER
CULTURE, POLITICAL CULTURE, ETC
REMEMBER:

CULTURE IS RELATIVE. A BEHAVIOR


MAY BE PLEASEANT FOR SOME BUT IT
MAY NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR THE
OTHERS.
CULTURE IS A BLUPRINT FOR SOCIETY.
SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMICS SYTEMS
VARY AND OPERATE IN THE CULTURAL
CONTEXT.
-TAKE THE CASE OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN
DEMOCRACIES ; THERE IS WHAT WE CALL AN
“ASIAN STYLE” OF DEMOCRACY THAT IS DIFFERENT
FROM THAT BEING PRACTICED IN THE UNITED
STATES AND OTHER WESTERN COUNTRIES.

- SOME ASIAN LEADERS EMPHASIZE THE


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WESTERN AND ASIAN
VALUES, AND THIS DIFFERENCE SHOULD BE TAKEN
INTO CONSIDERATION BECAUSE CULTURE IS A WAY
OF ADAPTATION.
- THERE IS NO BEST FORM OF SOCIAL,
POLITICAL OR ECONOMICS SYSTEM IN A
UNIVERSAL SENSE SO TO SPEAK, WHICH IS
WHY WE NEED TO MODIFY THINGS
ACCORDINGLY TO WHAT IS COMPATIBLE .
- CULTURE IS A BLUEPRINT FOR SOCIETY IN THE
SENSE THAT IS PRESCRIBES AND CUSTOMIZES
THE SOCIAL , POLITICAL AND ECONOMICS
SYSTEMS CONFIGURED AT OPTIMUM FOR
MEMBERS OF SOCIETY THAT WILL GUIDE THEIR
WAY OF LIFE.
- CULTURE IS AN IMPRINT OF MAN. IT IS
EVERYTHING THAT PEOPLE HAVE, THINK AND
DO. MAN MAKES HIS CULTURE AND HE
PASSES DOWN THIS CULTURE WEALTH TO
SUCCEEDING GENERATIONS AS A CULTURAL
HERITAGE OF MAN’S ACCUMULATED
ACHIVEMENTS AND CONTINUOUS
PROGRESS.
- IT IS A CONTINUING ACCUMULATION OF
STOCKS PILE ACHIVEMENTS OF MAN’S REACH
TO GREATER HEIGHTS AND DISTANCE IN
IMPROVING HIMSELF AND THE QUALITY OF
LIFE HE COULD HAVE.
ELEMENTS OF CULTURE
- CULTURE IS COMPOSED OF THE MATERIAL AND
NON-MATERIAL CULTURAL ELEMENTS.
- MATERIAL CULTURE CONSISTS OF TANGIBLE
THINGS SUCH AS TECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS,
ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES, FASHION AND
ACCESSORIES, FOOD, ETC.
- WHEREAS NON-MATERIAL CULTURE CONSISTS
OF INTANGIBLE THINGS SUCH AS IDEAS,
LANGUAGE AND SYMBOLS, RELIGION, BEHAVIOR,
GESTURES, HABITS, ETC.
THE ELEMENTS OF CULTURE THAT MAKE
UP ITS TOTALITY ARE AS FOLLOWS:
1. KNOWLEDGE – IT REFERS TO ANY
INFORMATION RECEIVED AND PERCEIVED TO BE
TRUE. IT DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN THAT
ALL KNOWLEDGE –BASED INFORMATION IS A
“GOSPHEL TRUTH.” AS LONG AS ONE KNOWS,
THEN ONE HAS KNOWLEDGE EVEN IF WHAT HE
KNOWS IS NOT CORRECT WHICH IS WHY THERE
IS WHT WE CALL FALSE KNOWLEDGE.
2. BELIEFS – THE PERCEPTION OF ACCEPTED
REALITY.
REALITY- REFERS TO THE EXISTENCE OF THINGS
WHETHER MATERIAL OF NON-MATERIAL BUT
NOT IMAGINARY.
IMAGINATION IS ONLY MAKE-BELIEVE, A
FANTASY, A NON-EXISTING REALTIY CONTRARY
TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPT OF
BELIEF WHICH IS PERCEIVED REALITY.
ON THE OTHER HAND, RELIGION IS NOT THE
SAME AS BELIEF. BELIEF IS JUST ONE OF THE
COMPONENTS OF RELIGION
3. SOCIAL NORMS – THESE ARE THE
ESTABLISHED EXPECTATIONS OF SOCIETY AS TO
HOW A PERSON ISS SUPPOSED TO ACT
DEPENDING ON THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE
TIME, PLACE OR SUITUATION.

ACT OR BEHAVIORS THAT ARE CONTRARY TO


THE EXPECTIONS OF SOCIETY ARE EITHER
CALLED ABNORMAL, IMMORAL OR ILLEGAL. A
SOCIAL PRACTICE THAT SOCIETY REGARDS
WITH RESERVATION AND REPULSION AS
SOCIALLY OBJECTIONABLE, UNACCEPTABLE,
AND PROHIBITED IS CALLED TABOO.
THE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTE
SOCIAL NORMS WHICH ARE
SOURCES OR BASIS OF SOCIETY’S
BEHAVIORAL EXPECTATIONS:
3.1 FOLKWAYS
- THE PATTERNS OF REPETITIVE BEHAVIOR
WHICH BECOME HABITUAL AND
CONVENTIONAL PART OF LIVING. INCLUDED
THEREIN ARE CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS.
3.2 MORES
- THE SET OF ETHICAL STANDARDS AND MORAL
OBLIGATIONS AS DICTATES OF REASON THAT
DISTINGUISHES HUMAN ACTS AS RIGHT OR
WRONG OR GOOD FROM BAD.
3.3 LAWS
- THESE ARE SETS OF BINDING RULERS OR
MEASURES THAT INDUCE MAN TO ACT OR
RESTRAIN HIM FROM ACTING. LAWS MAY BE
CUSTOMARY OR WRITTEN.
4. VALUES
- ANYTHING HELD TO BE RELATIVELY WORTHLY,
IMPORTANT, DESIRABLE, OR VALUABLE. IT DOES
NOT CONFINE ITSELF TO MORALITY, MANNERS
OR CUNDUCT.
5. TECHNOLOGY
- THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE
IN CONVERTING RAW MATERIALS INTO
FINISHED PRODUCT. EXAMPLES OF WHICH ARE
STRUCTURES, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, CLOATHES,
ETC.
THE SIMPLE STONE TOOLS MADE BY EARLY
ANCESTORS OF MODERN MAN ARE ALREADY
TECHNOLOGY WHICH DOES NOT NESESSARILY
HAVE TO BE ADVANCE OR COMPLEX.
ELEMENTS OF CULTURE HAVE SOME LOGICAL
RELATIONSHIP TO ONE ANOTHER. THE EXTENT
OF OUR TECHNOLOGY IS BASED ON THE
EXTENT OF KNOWLEDGE WE HAVE.
FOLKWAYS ARE PARTLY INFLUENCED BY OUR
BELIEFS AS IN THE CASE OF PERFORMED
RITUALS.
VALUES AND MORES ARE CRITERIA FOR
JUDGING HUMAN BEHAVIOR, WHILE SOME
SOCIAL NORMS ARE ENCODED IN LAWS.
VALUES SYSTEM AND ORIENTATION
- THE SET OF STANDARDS OR CRITERIA BY
WHICH PEOPLE’S CHOICES,ACTIONS, AND
BEHAVIOR ARE JUDGED OR EVALUATED
ACCORDING TO THEIR SIGNIFICANT VALUE IS
CALLED A VALUES SYSTEM. IT IS LIKE THE
CRITERIA FOR JUDGING IN A CONTEST WHEREIN
THE PANEL OF JUDGES GIVES EQUIVALENT
SCORE CORRESPONDING TO THE CATEGORIES
LISTED IN THE CRITERIA.
BRAIN TEASER GAME

TRY STARING AT THE BLACK SQUARES ON THE


NEXT PAGE. WHAT DO YOU SEE AT THE
INTERSECTION OF THE HORIZONTAL AND
VERTICAL WHITE LINES?
QUESTIONS
1. WHAT ARE YOUR IMPRESSION ABOUT THE
HERMAN GRID?
2. HAVE YOU EVER HAD A WRONG FIRST
IMPRESSION OF SOMEONE WHO HAD A
DIFFERENT BACKGROUND OR CAME FROM
ANOTHER CULTURE?
3. HAS SOMEONE FROM A DIFFERENT
BACKGROUND OR ANOTHER CULTURE EVER
HAD THE WRONG FIRST IMPRESSION OF YOU?
AMERICAN SOCIOLOGIST, ROBIN M. WILLIAMS
(1914-2006) PRESENTED FOUR CRITERIA TO
TEST AND IDENTFY WHAT PREVAILING AND
DOMINATING VALUES ARE HELD AND BY PEOPLE
IN THE SOCIETY.
1. EXTENSIVENESS – A CERTAIN VALUE IS
RECOGNIZED BY SIGNIFICANTLY LARGE
PORTION OF THE POPULATION.
2. DURATION – A CERTAIN VALUE HAS BEEN
DETERMINED TO BE CONSISTENTLY AND
PERSISTENTLY HELD AND PRACTICED OVER A
SIGNIFICANTLY LONG SPAN OF TIME.
3. INTENSITY – A CERTAIN VALUE IS REGARDED
ANDD UPHELD WITH HIGH DEGREE OF
DEMANDING IMPORTANCE.
4. PRESTIGE OF ITS CARRIER – THE PERSON
WHO EXEMPLIFIES A CERTAIN VALUE IS
WORTHY OF ADMIRATION AND EMULATION.
VALUES ORIENTATION ON THE OTHER HAND
REFERS TO A PERSON’S MIND SETTING
TOWARDS IN HIS CONCERN AND PREFERENCE
OVER CERTAIN COMBINATIONS OF OUTCOMES
TO THEMSELVES AND OTHERS
FIVE TYPES OF SOCIAL VALUE ORIENTATIONS
ARE DISTINGUISHED AS FOLLOWS.

1. ALTRUISTIC
2. COOPERATIVE
3. INDIVIDUALISTIC
4. COMPETITIVE
5. AGGRESSIVE
ASIAN AND FILIPINO VALUES
SINGAPOREAN PRIME MINISTER (NOW MINISTER
MENTOR) LEE KUAN YEW POINTED OUT THAT THERE IS
A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ASIAN VALUES FROM THAT OF
WESTERN VALUES. MINISTER MENTOR LEE STATED A
FUNDAMENTAL DDIFFERENCE BETWEEN WESTERN
CONCEPTS OF SOCIETY AND GOVERNMENT AND EAST
ASIA CONCEPTS; EAST ASIAN VALUES EMPHASIZE THAT
AN INDIVIDUAL IS NOT A SEPARATE ENTITY, BUT PART
OF A FAMILY, WHICH IS THEN PART OF SOCIETY .
THE MINISTER MENTOR IN HIS VIEW
EXPRESSED:
- I TRULLY BELIEVE THE PROCESS IS
DARWINIAN… IF ADOPTING WESTERN
VALUES DIMINISHES THE PROSPECTS FOR
THE SURVIVAL OF A SOCIETY , THEY WILL BE
REJECTED.
- WHAT ASIANS VALUE MAY NOT NECESSARILY
BE WHAT AMERICANS OR EUROPEANS
VALUE. WESTERN VALUE THE FREEDOM AND
LIBERTIES OF THE INDIVIDUALS.
ONE PRINCIPAL CORE OF “ASIAN VALUES” IS
THAT ASIANS GENERALLY VALUE
COMMUNITARIANISM OR PLACING FIRST THE
COLLECTIVE INTEREST AND WELFARE OF THE
GROUP , COMMUNITY AND STAETE OVER
WESTERN VALUES OF INDIVIDUALISM THAT
EMPHASIZES THE IMPORTANCE OF HAVING
AND EXERCISING INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND
LIBERTIES.
DR. RHOADS MURPHRY, PROFESSOR OF
HISTORY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
DESCRIBED TRADITIONAL ASIAN SOCIETY AND
CULTURE:
THEY ALSO STRESSED, AND STILL STRESS, THE
SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO
THE COMMON INTEREST OF THE GROUP…
INDIVIDUALISM AND INDIVIDUAL EXPRESSION,
SO HIGHLY VALUED IN THE MODERN WEST,
WERE SEEN AN ANTISOCIAL, DISRUPTIVE,
SELFISH AND DESTRUCTIVE OF THE GROUP
INTEREST.
EVEN FILIPINO ANTHROPOLOGIST, DR. FELIPE
LANDAJOCANO, PROFESSOR EMERITUS AT THE
ASIAN CENTER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
PHILIPPINES, AND AN ATHORITY ON THE
SUBJECT MATTER OF FILIPINO SOCIETY AND
CULTURE SHOWED EVIDENCE THAT
INDIVIDUALISM IS NOT PART OF TRADITIONAL
FILIPINO CULTURE…
POINTING OUT TO THE ELEMENTS OF
PAKIKITUNGO ( TO CONCEDE AND TO ESTABLISHED
GOOD RAPPORT OR SMOOTH INTERPERSONAL
RELATIONSHIPS)
PAKIKISAMA (TO BE SENSITIVE, CONCERNED, AND
SUPPORTIVE), AND
PAKIKIRAMAY ( TO SYMPATHIZE ANDD SHARE
SUFFERING)
- DR. JOCANO HAD INCISIVELY IDENTIDIED THREE
ELEMENTS THAT CONSTITUTE THE FILIPINO VALUE
SYSTEM.
1. HALAGA - IT IS THE EVALUATE ASPECT AS TO
WHAT FILIPINOSS FIND MOST VIRTUOUS
WHICH CONSTITUTE THREE DIMENSIONS:
1.1 PAGKATAO O SELF-WORTHY,
1.2 PAKIKIPAGKAPWA-TAO OR DIGNIFIED
RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS, AND
1.3 PAKAMAKATAO OR COMPASSION.
2. ASAL – IT IS EXPRESSION OF THE EVALUATIVE
ASPECTS OF FILIPINO VALUE SYSTEM WHICH
CONSTITUTE THREE STANDARDS:
2.1 KAPWA OR RELATIONAL
2.2 DAMDAMIN OR EMOTIONAL, DANGAL O
HONOR
2.3 DIWA – THIS REFERS TO THE KALOOBAN OR
INNER SELF WHICH IN ESSENCE IS
INTERTWINED REASON AND EMOTION.
EVERYTHING IN THIS WORLD IS TEMPORAL
AND PASSING . WE KEEP ON HEARING THE
SAYING THAT LIFE IS TOO SHORT AND THAT WE
CAN DO SO MUCH LESS IN SO LITTLE TIME. THE
GREATST VALUEOF ALL IS HAVING GOD IN THE
CENTER OF MAN’S LIFE. THE IMPORTANCE OF
HAVING AND BELIEVING IN GOD IS THE
MEANING IT GIVES TO EXIXTENCE OF MAN
AND HIS PURPOSE IN LIFE. A LIFE WITHOUT
MEANING AND PURPOSE IS A USELESS LIFE
WITH NO VALUE AT ALL.
CYBERCULTURE
THE INTERNETIS A SYSTEM OF INTERCONNECTED
COMPUTER NETWORKS THAT USE THE
STANDARDSINTERNET PROTOCOL.
THIS VIRTUAL SPACE CALLED CYBERSPACE IN THE
INTERNET HAS GENERATED A NEW AND
DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT APART FROM THE
PHYSICAL WORLD SO THAT A NEW CULTURE ALSO
HAS EMERGEDCALLED CYBERCULTURE EHICH
PREVAILS IN THE INTERNET.
CYBERCULTURE HAS EVOLVED ITS OWN
NORMS OR EXPECTATIONS ON THE
APPROPRIATE USE OF THE INTERNET ALSO
CALLED NETIQUETTE. TO MENTION SOME
ONLINE BEHAVIOR THAT NETIQUETTE
DISAPPROVES OF ARE:
1. SPAMMING
2. FLOODING
3. SHOUTING
4. FLAMING
CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS OF
CULTURE
CULTURE POSSESSES CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS
THAT DESCRIBES ITS NATURE. THESE ASPECTS OF
CULTURE ARE ENUMERATED AS FOLLOWS:
1. LEARNABLE
2. TRANSMITTABLE
3. UNIVERSAL
4. DYNAMICS
5. DIVERSE
CULTURAL VARIATION AND PERCEPTION
THANK YOU!