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OTHER THEORIES
4 AND MODELS OF
SECOND LANGUAGE
5 ACQUISITION

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1 The Acculturation Model
“Process of becoming adapted to a new
culture.”

SOCIAL DISTANCE: Schumman says:


When social and/or Pidginazation
- As a member of a social group
Psychological (No+ V Negatives
- Learning situation is “good or bad”
distances are great Uninverted
Example:
interrogatives,
The L2 group’s culture is congruent
Absence of possessive
with that of the target language group
etc.,
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTANCE:
If pidginization Learner fossilizes
- Affective factors as an individual:
- Language clock persists
- Culture shock
- Motivation Schumman distinguishes three broad functions of language:
- Communicative function
- Integrative function
- Expressive function
The Nativization Model

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- Anderson builds on Schumman’s Acculturation Model
- Cognitive dimension -------Learning Processes

Anderson sees SLA as:

Nativization Assimilation ----- Internal norm


(learner build hypothesis based
on the knowledge he possess)

Denativization Accommodation ----- External norm


(learner adjust his internalized
system to fit the input.)
The Accommodation Theory
When speakers interact, they adjust their speech, and other gestures to
accommodate others.
- Derives from the research of Giles
- He concerned to investigate how intergroup uses of language reflect
3 basic social and psychological attitudes.
- Ingroup: groups in which a person feels he or she belongs
- Outgroup: groups in which a person feels he or she does not
belong.
Giles agrees that motivation is primary determinant of L2 proficiency.

Motivation is governed by a number of key variables:


Giles distinguishes 2 types of change
which occur in the L2 speaker’s use:
1. Identification of the individual learner with his ethnic group.
1. Upward Convergence 2. Inter-ethnic comparison
2. Downward divergence 3. Perception of ethno-linguistic vitality
4. Identification with other ingroup social categories
The Discourse Theory
Communication is treated as the matrix of linguistic knowledge

- Language development should be considered in terms of how the learner


discovers the meaning potential of language by participating in
communication.

- It can be learnt through learning to communicate.


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Principles of the Discourse theory proposed by Hatch:

1. SLA follows a “natural route”


2. Native speakers adjust their speech in order to negotiate meaning
with non-native speakers.
3. Natural route is the result of learning how to hold conversations.
The Variable Competence Model
It attempts to account for:
1. The variability of language-learner language.
2. The external and internal processes responsible for SLA.
The variable competence model
Proposed by Ellis.

2 Distinctions

Process of Language Product of Language


Linguistic Knowledge Use of this language - Unplanned discourse (lack of
(Procedures) preparation)
(rules)
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Example:
Spontaneous Communication
Widdowson
Competence Capacity - Planned Discourse (it is
prepared)
Example:
Writing
The Variable Competence Model
The variability of the learner’s rule system with reference to Bialystok’s dual
distinction is:
1. Relative access that the learner has the L2 knowledge
- Automatic: can be retrieved easily and quickly
- Non-automatic: that takes time and effort to retrieved
2. Learner possess a propositional mental representation ---- which makes clear the
structure of the knowledge.
- Analytic, Unanalytic: the general form in which we know most things ----
we are usually not aware of the way in which our knowledge is structured.
The learner possess a capacity for language use which consist of:
Discourse
Primary Processes Simplify the semantic structure of a message

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Cognitive
Construct an underlying conceptual structure of a message.

Discourse
Simplify the semantic structure of a message
Secondary Processes Cognitive
Construct an underlying conceptual structure of a message.
The Universal Hypothesis

- Linguistic properties of the target language and the learner’s first language ---
may influence the course of development.
- SLA ---- in terms of an independent language faculty

The value of the Universal hypothesis for SLA theory is twofold:

1. It focuses attention on the nature of the target language.


2. It provides a subtle and persuasive reconsideration of transfer as an
important factor in SLA.

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The Neurofunctional Theory
Neurolinguistic Research

- Attempts to characterize the neurolinguistic information processing systems responsible for


the development and use of the language.
- There is a connection between language function and the neural anatomy.

The right hemisphere


(known as the
The left hemisphere Wernick’s and Broca’s
areas.)

- Both associated with comprehension and production of


language.
- Focus on 1) Age difference, 2) formulaic speech, 3)
fossilization, 4) pattern practice in classroom

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The right hemisphere

- Storing and processing formulaic speech


- Be involved in pattern practice in classroom SLA.
- Act as initial staging mechanism for handling patterns --- re-
examined later in left hemisphere
- Pattern practice and minimal pair drills may utilize right hemisphere
abilities in adult learner

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The left hemisphere

- Creative language use, including syntactic and


semantic processing and motor operations
involved in speaking and writing.
- If left hemisphere does not take place --- the
learner will not be able to utilize language forms. -
--construction of spontaneous, creative speech.

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Lamendella’s Neurofunctional Theory

Two basic types of language acquisition:

1. Primary Language Acquisition


2-5 years
2. Secondary Language Acquisition
A) Foreign Language learning
B) Second Language Acquisition

Two systems for language functioning:

1. The communicative hierarchy --- has responsibility for


language and interpersonal
2. The cognitive hierarchy --- controls a variety of cognitive
information processing

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