Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 47


Done by D1 group
 Definition
 Anatomy
 Precipitating factors
 Types
 Clinical features
 Preoperative assessment
 Management and repair

A hernia is a protrusion of a
viscus or part of a viscus
through an abnormal
opening in the walls of its
containing cavity .
 The inguinal canal :-
The inguinal canal is approximately 4 cm long and is directed obliquely
inferomedially through the inferior part of the anterolateral abdominal
wall. The canal lies parallel and 2-4 cm superior to the medial half of
the inguinal ligament.This ligament extends from the anterior
superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle.
 The inguinal canal has openings at either end : –
The deep (internal) inguinal ring is the entrance to the inguinal canal.
It is thesite of an outpouching of the transversalis fascia. This is
approximately 1.25 cm superior to the middle of the inguinal
The superficial, or external inguinal ring is the exit from the inguinal
canal. It is a slitlke opening between the diagonal fibres of the
aponeurosis of the external oblique
Inguinal canal
 walls of The inguinal canal :-
 The anterior wall is formed mainly by the aponeurosis of the
external Oblique

 . The posterior wall is formed mainly by transversalis fascia

 The roof is formed by the arching fibres of the internal oblique and
 transverse abdominal muscles.

 The floor is formed by the inguinal ligament, which forms a shallow
trough. It is
reinforced in its most medial part by the lacunar

Content :-
1. Spermatic cord ( round ligament of the uterus in female )
The Cord Itself.—The contents of the spermatic cord are
(a) the ductus (vas) deferens and its artery .
(b) the testicular artery and venous (pampiniform) plexus.
(c) the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve.
(d) lymphatic vessels and sympathetic nerve fibers.
(e) fat and connective tissue surrounding the cord and its coverings in
various amounts
2. Ilioinguinal nerve .
3. Ilioinguinal lymph node .
Femoral Canal
The major feature of the femoral canal is the femoral sheath. This
sheath is a condensation of the deep fascia (fascia lata) of the thigh
and contains, from lateral to medial, the femoral artery, femoral
vein, and femoral canal. The femoral canal is a space medial to the
vein that allows for venous expansion and contains a lymph node
(node of Cloquet). Other features of the femoral triangle include
the femoral nerve, which lies lateral to the sheath,

 Wall of The Femoral canal

anterior is the inguinal ligament
posterior is the iliopsoas, pectineal, and long adductor muscles (floor).
Medial is lacunar ligament
Lateral is femoral vessle

All hernias occur at the site of

WALL which are acted on by repeated
INCREASE in abdominal pressure
repeated INCREASE in abdominal
pressure is usually due to
 Chronic cough
 Straining
 Bladder neck or urethral obstruction
 Pregnancy
 Vomiting
 Sever muscular effort
 Ascetic fluid
 Inguinal
 Femoral
 Epigastric
 Para umbilical
 Umbilical
 Obturator
 Superior lumbar
 Inferioer lumbar
 Gluteal
 Sciatic
 Incisional
• Indirect Inguinal Hernia
Hernia through the inguinal canal
• Direct Inguinal Hernia
The sac passes through a weakness or defect of the transversalis
fascia in the posterior wall of the inguinal canal
• Femoral Hernia
Hernia medial to femoral vessels under inguinal ligament
• Umbilical Hernia
Hernia through the umbilical ring
• Paraumbilical Hernia
A protrusion through the linea alba just above or sometimes just below the
• Epigastric Hernia
Protrusion of extraperitoneal fat through the linea alba anywhere between
the xiphoid process and the umbilicus
• Incisional Hernia
Hernia through an incisional site
• Lumber Hernia
occur through the inferior lumber triangle of Petit
Inguinal hernia
 History:
1. Age ( young vs. old)
2. Occupation ( nature ?? )
3. Local symptoms: Swelling, discomfort
and pain
4. Systemic symptoms: if there is
obstruction or strangulation
5. Precipitating factors
Inguinal hernia
 Examination:
1. Inspection for site, size, shape and color.
2. Palpation for surface, temp, tenderness,
composition and reducibility.
3. Expansible cough impulse.
4. General exam: for common causes of
increase intra abdominal pressure
Indirect Versus Direct inguinal
 Indirect is the most common form of
hernia and its usually congenital due to
patent processus viginalis

 Direct usually acquired occur in old men

with weak abdominal muscles.
Indirect Versus Direct inguinal hernias
Direct Inguinal Hernia Indirect Inguinal Hernia

Bulge from the posterior wall of the inguinal Pass through inguinal canal.
Cannot descent into the scrotum. Can descend into the scrotum.
Medial to inferior epigastric vessels. Lateral to inferior epigastric vessels.
Reduced: upward, then straight backward. Reduced: upward, then laterally and backward.

Not controlled: after reduction by pressure Controlled: after reduction by pressure over
over the internal (deep) inguinal ring. the internal (deep) inguinal ring.

The defect may be felt in the abdominal wall The defect is not palpable (it is behind the
above the pubic tubercle. fibers of the external oblique muscle).

After reduction: the bulge reappears exactly After reduction: the bulge appears in the
where it was before. middle of inguinal region and then flows
medially before turning down to the scrotum.

Common in old age. Common in children and young adults.

 Male:

 Female

Note that examination using finger and

thumb across the neck of the scrotum will
help to distinguish a swelling of inguinal
origin and one that is entirely intrascrotal
Femoral hernia

Small femoral hernia may be unnoticed by

the patient or disregarded for years
perhaps until the day it strangulates.
Adherence of the greater omentum
sometimes causes a dragging pain. Rarely
a large sac is present .
Femoral hernia
 Age ; uncommon in children , most common
in old age female .
 Sex; women > men (but still commonest
hernia in women the inguinal hernia )
 The patient came with local symptoms
 1- discomfort and pain
 2- swelling in the groin
 General ; femoral hernia is more likely to be
strangulated than the inguinal hernia
 Multiplicity ; often bilateral
Femoral hernia versus inguinal
Femoral hernia Inguinal hernia

1- more common in females 1- more common in male

2- pass through the femoral canal 2- pass through the inguinal canal

3- neck of the sac is below and lateral 3- neck of the sac is above and medial
the pubic tubercle the pubic tubercle

4- more common to be strangulated 4- less common to be strangulated

5- must be treated surgically 5- can be treated without surgery

6- the two diagnostic signs of hernia - 6- the two diagnostic signs of hernia +

7- the sac mainly contains ; omentum 7- the sac mainly contain ; bowel
Umbilical hernia
 Signs and symptoms
 Age ; doesn’t appear until the umbilical
cord has separated and healed .
 No specific symptoms
 Have wide neck and reduce easily , rarely
give intestinal obstruction.
 Nature history ; 90 % disappear
spontaneously during the first year.
 Examination
 Inspection
 Site ; in the center of the umbilicus
 Size and shape ; size can vary from vary small to
very large . Shape is usually hemispherical.
 Palpation
 Composition ; contain bowel , which makes it
resonant to percussion . They reduce
spontaneously when the child lies down .
 Reducibility ; easy
 Cough impulse; invariably present .
Acquired umbilical hernia

 Hernia through the umbilical scar , so it is a

true umbilical hernia.
 Not common and is usually secondary to
increase intra abdominal pressure.
 The most common causes
 1- pregnancy
 2- ascitis
 3- ovarian cyst
 4- fibrodis
 5- bowel distention
Incision hernia
 Signs and symptoms
 Previous operation or accidental trauma
 Age ; all ages , but more common in old age.
 Symptom ; lump ,pain ,intestinal obstruction ( distention ,colic,
vomiting ,constipation , sever pain in the lump )
 Examination
 1- reducible lump
 2- expansile cough impulse
 3- if the lump dose not reduse and dose not have cough impulse ,
than it may be not a hernia
 Ddx
 Tumor
 Chronic abscess
 Hematoma
 Foreign body granuloma
Preoperative assessment

 proper history and examination

 identify high risk patients
 prepare the preoperative notes :
 consent..
 pre op Dx
 procedure planned
 surgeons
 Anasthesia anticipated (general , local,
Preoperative assessment
 Investigation data ( pre operative tests ) :
1. Lab :
* CBC : to check hemoglobin level  anemia and WBCs 
* U&E : to check for any electrolyte imbalance
* LFTs : indicated in jaundiced patients and suspected hepatitis
or any clotting problems
* PT & PTT
* grouping and cross matching
2. Imaging :
* Chest X ray : for all patients
3. ECG : for any patient who is more than 40 years of age
Preoperative assessment

 current medications or allergies

 any major (chronic) illness
 pre op orders :
1. skin preparation
2. diet (NPO)
3. GIT preparation
4. Sedation
5. Preanesthetic medications
6. Other medications
7. Antibiotics
8. Blood transfusion ( if needed )
9. Bladder preparation
and repair
Inguinal Hernia Repair

Pre op

Surgical TTT

Choice of Inguinal floor

TTT of hernial sac
Anesthetic reconstruction
Pre op evaluation &preparation

Watchful Waiting Surgical TTT

May be appropriate for pt with asymptomatic

hernia or elderly pt with minimal symptoms
or easily reduced inguinal hernia.

Routine F/U with health care professional

A Randomized trial concluded that this is an acceptable option for men with minimally symptomatic
inguinal hernia and that delaying repair until symptoms increase is safe due to low rate of incarceration. 23%
of pt initially treated with watchful waiting crossed over to surgical ttt due to increase in symptoms (most
often hernia-related pain) , only 1 pt (0.3%) experienced acute hernia incarceration without strangulation
within 2years, a second had acute incarceration with
Bowel obstruction at 4 years, corresponding to frequency of acute intervention of 1.8/1000 pt-years (JAMA
Pre op preparation
 Most pt are treated surgically
 Increase IAP abnormalities (Chronic cough,
Constipation, Bladder outlet obstruction)
should be evaluated and remedied to extent
possible before elective herniorrhaphy.
 In case of intestinal obstruction and possible
strangulation, Broad spectrum AB,NG suction
may be indicated, correction of volume status&
 Uncomplicated:
 Manual Gentle pressure over hernia Gentle
traction over the mass  sedation and
trendelenburg position.

 Complicated (strangulated):
 no attempt should be made to reduce the
hernia because of potential reduction of
gangrenous segment of bowel with the hernial
Surgerical TTT
 1.choice of anesthetic:
 elective open repair : Local is preferred
 Laproscopic hernia repair: more
commonly under GA.
 INDIRECT: sac is dissected free from the cord
structures and creamsteric fibers. Sac should be
open away from any herniated contents.
Contents are then reduced, and the sac is
ligated deep to inguinal ring with an absorbable

 Too broadly based for ligation and should not
be opened, simple freed from transversalis
fibers and inverted.
3.Inguinal Floor

 Some method of 3.Inguinal

reconstruction of the Reconstruction
inguinal floor is
necessary in all adult
hernia repairs to
prevent recurrence.
Open tension free Laproscopic &
Primary tissue repair
repair preperitoneal repairs
1.Primary tissue repair

 Bassini repair: inferior arch of

transversalis fascia (TF) or conjoint
tendon is approximated to shelving
portion of inguinal ligament.

 McVay:TF is sutured to cooper ligament.

 Shouldice:TF is incised and

2.Open tension free
 Lichtenstein repair &Patch and Plug
technique: Mesh is used to reconstruct
inguinal floor

 Mesh plug technique : place mesh in the

hernial defect
Laproscopic &
preperitoneal repairs
 TAPP (transabdominal prepeitoneal procedure): peritoneal space
entered by conventional lap at umbilicus and peritoneum overlaying
inguinal floor is dissected away as flap.

 TEP (Total extraperitoneal repair): preperitoneal space is developed

with a balloon inserted between posterior rectus sheath and
peritoneum  balloon inflated to dissect the peritoneal flaps awau
from posterior abdomianl wall and the direct and indirect spaces,
other ports inserted into this preperitoneal space without entering
peritoneal cavity.

 After lap. Dissection and reduction of hernia sac , a large piece of

mesh is placed over inguinal floor
Femoral hernia repair
• Femoral hernias should be repaired very soon after the
diagnosis has been made because of the high risk of
• There is no place for a truss for a femoral hernia.
• Different approaches :
Open VS Laparoscopic
Open surgery
Three approaches have been described for open
surgery :
1. Infra-inguinal approach (Lookwood)
2. Supra-inguinal approach ( McEvedy)
3. Trans-inguinal approach ( Lotheissen)
 Each technique has the principle of dissection
of the sac with reduction of its contents,
followed by ligation of the sac and closure
between the inguinal and pectineal ligaments.
Lockwood’s infra-inguinal approach
 The sac is dissected out below the
inguinal ligament via groin crease incision.
 Then the sac is opened and the contents
are inspected and reduced into the
 Then the neck of the sac is pulled down ,
ligated and allowed to retract through
femoral canal.
 Then close the femoral canal by mesh
plug or non absorbable sutures.
McEvedy’s high approach
 Vertical incision is made over the femoral
canal and continued upwards above the
inguinal ligament.
 This incision provides good access to the
preperitoneal space and then to the
peritoneum itself.
 Use finger dissection to sweep peritoneum
from anterior abdominal wall , so the neck
of the sac can be identified.
 Dissect the sac , reduce the contents and
repair the defect by mesh or sutures.
Lotheissen‘s trans-inguinal approach
 The incision is made superior and parallel
to inguinal ligament extending from pubic
tubercle to mid inguinal point.
Hernia examination