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The role of

dialogue in the
human person’s
intersubjectivity
PHENOMENOLOGY EDMUND HUSSERL

INTENTIONAL
CONCIOUSNESS
ANALYSIS

TRANSCENDENTAL
PHENOMENOLOGY
TRANSCENDENTAL
PHENOMENOLOGY
Transcendental Phenomenology
PHENOMENOLOGY
Literally means “the study of phenomena”. It deals with the
investigation of the structures of experience and consciousness.
It is also a philosophical movement introduced through the works
of Edmund Husserl.
Hence, transcendental phenomenology is the phenomenology of
consciousness and intentional analysis is constitutive analysis –
how are the things constituted in human consciousness.

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PHENOMENOLOGY
PHENOMENOLOGY
FROM THE WORD
“PHAINOMENON” MEANS
APPEARANCE AND “LOGOS”
MEANS REASONS/STUDY.
-STUDY OF PHENOMENON
ANYTHING
THAT EXISTS
OF WHICH
THE MIND IS
CONCIOUS

- ATTEMPTS TO DESCRIBE
WHAT IS GIVEN TO US IN
EXPERIENCE

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EDMUND HUSSERL
EDMUND HUSSERL
Forerunner of Modern
Phenomenonolgy

the "father" of the philosophical movement


known as phenomenology. Phenomenology
can be roughly described as the sustained
attempt to describe experiences (and the
"things themselves") without metaphysical
and theoretical speculations. Husserl
suggested that only by suspending or
bracketing away the "natural attitude" could
philosophy becomes its own distinctive and
rigorous science, and he insisted that
phenomenology is a science of
consciousness rather than of empirical
things.

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CONCIOUSNESS
CONSCIOUSNESS
noun
the state of being awake
and aware of one's
surroundings.

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INTENTIONALITY
intentionality
In philosophy, intentionality is the power of
minds and mental states to be about, to
represent, or to stand for, things, properties
and states of affairs. To say of an individual’s
mental states that they have intentionality is to
say that they are mental representations or
that they have contents. Furthermore, to the
extent that a speaker utters words from some
natural language or draws pictures or symbols
from a formal language for the purpose of
conveying to others the contents of her mental
states, these artifacts used by a speaker too
have contents or intentionality.

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THE LIFEWORLD AS THE
NATURAL STANDPOINT
OF EXPERIENCE
Natural Attitude
The Awareness of Being-in-the-world
“I am conscious of a world
endlessly spread out in space,
endlessly becoming and having
endlessly become in time. I am
conscious of it : that signifies,
above all, that intuitively I find
it immediately, that I
experience it.”
-Edmund Husserl

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This belief, for Edmund Husserl, is the natural
attitude. The world is present and through any
perception it can be known because It is simply
there.

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The natural attitude is an awareness of being-in-
the-world, which is practical and comes with values.

Husserl’s concept of natural attitude does not that


something that you see is good or bad. What he eans
is that the way you see things shows an ordinary or
everyday way of being-in-the-world.

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Intersubjective
experience is emphatic
experience
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All that which holds for me
myself holds, as I know, for all
other human beings whom I find
present in my surrounding
world.
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Each has its place from which he sees
the physical things present, and each
has different physical things
appearances and also for each field of
actual perception and actual memory
are different.
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If you accept that other human
beings share the same natural
attitude, you will be able to
accept others the way you are
constituted.

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The First Attitude
of Being Toward
Others
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The First Attitude of Being toward Others

The presence of the "Other" in the scheme of how


the "I" is being-for-others.

Philosophy of Jean Paul Sartre


-Characterized " the First attitude toward others"
of being-for-others of the being-for-itself.

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"While I attempt to free myself from the hold of the other, the
OTHER is trying to free himself from mine ; while I seek to
enslave the other , the Other seek to enslave me. We are by no
means of dealing with unilateral relations with an object-in-
itself, but with reciprocal and moving reciprocal. The following
descriptions of concrete behavior must therefore must be
envisaged within the perspective of conflict. CONFLICT is the
original meaning of being-for-others.
~Jean Paul Sartre , Being and Nothingness

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Concept of conflict arises:
The "I" is possessed by the "Other'' , hence the idea of being enslaved.
"He makes me be and thereby he possessed me, and this possession is
nothing other than the consciousness of possessing me. I in the
recognition of my object- state have proof that he has this
consciousness. By virtue of consciousness the OTHER is for me
simultaneously the one who has stolen my being from me and the one
who causes "there to be" a being which is my being. Thus I have a
comprehension of this ontological structure: I am responsible for my
being- for-others , but I am not foundation of it.“
~Jean Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness

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The "I" possessed by the other through the "look" is
when you being looked at by the other person, lose
your capacity to be what you want because the Other
has already given his or her conscious meaning of
your essence.

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The other stealing of being
You are responsible for how the OTHERS sees you , but you are NOT
restricted on it.
When the possibilities of the "I" seems to be dead, Sartre explains:
Reclaim of freedom in 2 ways;
1. By projecting the I as the Other's otherness (look at the Other and
possess the Others Freedom ; I becomes the Other) - does not remove
the conflict The "I" simply took the role of the Other.

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2. . By assimilating himself or herself as the " Other-looking-at-me’’
Sartre's ideal strategy The " I " unites with the Other without the
Other Loosing his or her Otherness but surpassing the Others'
transcedence toward the I's possibilities . That is if the "I" could
surpass the look of the Other his/her own possibilities , then the I has
Overcome the look and is able to reclaim the freedom of his or her
own possibilities.

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"Thus, the condition on which I project the identification of myself to the
other is that I persist in denying that I am the Other. Finally, this project
of unification is the source of conflict since while I experience myself as
an object for the Other and while I project assimilating him in and by
means of this experience, the Other apprehends me as an object in the
means of the world and does not project identifying me with himself. It
would therefore be necessary - since being-for-others includes double
internal negation- to act upon internal negation by which the Other
transcends my transcendence and make me exist for the Other, that is , to
act upon the Other's freedom".
~Jean Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness

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Hence, "This Unrealizable ideal which haunts my project of
myself in the presence of the Other is not to be identified with
love in so far as love is an enterprise, i.e.. an organic ensemble
of projects toward my own possibilities. But it is the ideal of
love, its motivation and its end, its unique value. Love as the
primitive relation to the Other is the ensemble of the project
by which I aim at realizing this value."
~Jean Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness

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Sartre proposes:
Using love to possibly remove the conflict : the relation of the
" I " (Lover) and the "Other" beloved.
Gain the structure of love as free decision to love . It must be
slip in to motivate the free engagement .
The beloved must be able to love the I freely by making the I
the limit of transcendence of the beloved.

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In the act of loving, the beloved must be able to make the " I "
his or her very possibility.
"Thus to want to be loved is to infect the other with One's own
fasticity; is to wish to compel him to recreate you perpetually
as the conditi
on of a freedom which is engaged; it is to wish both that the
freedom found fact and the fact have Pre-eminence over
freedom. If this end could be attained, it would result in the
first place in my being secure within the Other's
consciousness.''

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"I must no longer be seen on the ground of the world as a 'this' among other
'thises', but the world must be revealed in terms of me. In fact to the extent
that the upsurge of freedom makes a world exist, I must be, as the limiting-
condition of this upsurge, the very condition of the upsurge of a world. I must
be the one whose function is to make trees and water exist, to make cities and
fields and other men exist, in order to give them later to the Other who
arranges them into a world, just as the mother in matrilineal communities
receives titles and the family name not to keep them herself but to transfer
them immediately to her children. In one sense if I am to be loved, I am the
object through whose procuration the world will exist for the Other; in another
sense I am the world.
- Jean Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness

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"This project is to provoke a conflict. The beloved in fact apprehends
the lover as one Other-as-object among others; that is, he perceives
the lover on the ground of the world, transcends him, and utilizes him.
The beloved is a look. He cannot therefore employ his transcendence
to fix an ultimate limit to his surprassings, nor can he employ his
freedom to captivate itself. The beloved cannot will to love. Therefore
the lover must seduce the beloved, and his love can in no way be
distinguished from the enterprise of seduction.“
- Jean Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness

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" As soon as I express myself, I can only guess at the meaning of what I
express, i.e., the meaning of what I am since in this perspective, to express and
to be are one. The Other is always there, present and experienced as the one
who gives to language its meaning. Each expression, each gesture, each word is
on my side a concrete proof of the alienating reality of the Other. The very
fact of expression is a stealing of thought since thought needs the cooperation
of an alienating freedom in order to be constituted as an object. That is why
this first aspect of language- in so far as it is I who employ it for the Other- is
sacred. The sacred object is an object which is in the world and which points to a
transcendence beyond the world. Language reveals to me the freedom (the
transcendence) of the one who listens to me in silence.“
- Jean Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness

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" When then will the beloved become in turn the lover? The answer is easy: when the
beloved projects being loved. By himself the Other-as-object never has enough
strength to produce love. If love has for its ideal the appropriation of the Other qua
Other (i.e., as a subjectivity which is looking at an object) this ideal can be projected
only in terms of my encounter with the Other-as-subject, not with the Other-as-
object. Love therefore can be born in the beloved only from the proof which he
makes of his alienation and his fight toward the Other. Still the beloved, if such is
the case, will be transformed into a lover only if he projects being loved; that is, if
what he wishes to overcome is not a body but the Other's subjectivity as such. In fact
the only way he could conceive to realize this appropriation is to make himself be
loved. Thus it seems that to love is in essence the project of making oneself be
loved."
- Jean Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness

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The I and
Thou
The I and Thou

> A book by martin buber (20th century philosopher


religious thinker political activist
> Published in 1923
> Translated from German to English in 1937

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The major themes of the book
is that human life finds its
meaningfulness in
relationships.

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Humans are defined as two word pairs:

I – it
I - thou

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> The attitude of the “I” towards an “It”, towards an
object that is separate in itself, which we either
use or experience.
> The attitude of the “I” towards “thou”, in a
relationship in which the other is not separated
by discrete bounds.

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LANGUAGE

> In Sartre’s philosophy, love is impossible and


provocative of conflict. The lover to be loved
must be able to use language to captivate and
fascinate the Beloved so he or she can love the
lover.

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The relationship of the I (lover) and the other (beloved)

> LOVE FREELY


> REMOVE CONFLICT

> MAKE I AS THE FOUNDATION


> MAKE I AS THE OBJECT

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The I and Thou
3 TYPES OF OTHERNESS
1. EXCHANGE LANGUAGE WITH MAN
(DIALOGUE)
2. TRANSMIT BELOW LANGUAGE WITH
NATURE (IT-THOU)
3. RECEIVE ABOVE LANGUAGE WITH SPIRIT
(I-THOU)

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Thanks!
THE END

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