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METHODS OF

RESEARCH

Josephine D. Lorica, RN, DPA


Course Outline
– Lesson 1. Overview of Research
– Lesson 2. Types of Research
Studies
– Lesson 3. Research Process
– Lesson 4: Research Problem
– Lesson 5. Literature Review
– Lesson 6. Research Design
– Lesson 7. Participants/Instruments
– Lesson 8. Data Analysis
– Lesson 9. Research Report
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– Lesson 10. Ethics
2
Requirements
• Participation/ Assignments
• Workshop Outputs
• Written report - Proposal
- check APA Research
Proposal Guide -

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OVERVIEW OF
RESEARCH

Lesson 1

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Why study research?

We are all consumers of research evidence.

We all gather and produce


research evidence in some form.
Why Study Research?
•To meet course requirements
•To understand research reports
•and journal articles
•To recognize false use of research
•As a guide in decision making
•Knowledge recreation

Source: http://www.uic.edu/classes/socw/socw560/INTROSWK/sld010.htm
Why conduct research?
Research develops
new knowledge,

…which can then be used to improve


education and training practices
Four types of research knowledge:
o Descriptive: to increase our knowledge of what
happens in schools and training (nation's report
cards)

oPrediction: to identify how variables effect


future responses (at risk students)
Four types of research knowledge:
o Improvement: to identify interventions that
improve performance (reinforcement, CAI)

o Explanation: which identifies theories that


describes, predicts, and controls phenomena to
improve learning (how to improve learning)
Sources of Knowledge
•Tradition
•Common Sense
•Authority
•Experiential
•Intuition
•Logic/Rationalism
•Science

Source; http://www.uic.edu/classes/socw/socw560/INTROSWK/
Traditional Knowledge
•Knowledge based on custom, habit
and repetition, founded on a belief
in the sanctity of ancient wisdom
and the ways of our forebears
(Monette et.al. 1994).
Common Sense

•Practical judgments based on the


experiences, wisdoms and
prejudices of a people
•Example: birds of the same feather
flock together, “opposite attract”.
Authority

Information from a person of


distinction or an authoritative source
Authority

Information from a person of


distinction or an authoritative source
Science

•This is the method of obtaining


objective knowledge about the world
through systematic observation
Characteristics of The
Scientific Method
•Empirical
•Systematic
•Replication
•Search for Causes
•Provisional
•Objective
•Intersubjective Testability

Source; http://www.uic.edu/classes/socw/socw560/INTROSWK/
Empirical

Information or facts about the world


based on sensory experiences. That is
direct observation of the world, to see
whether scientific theories or speculations
agree with the facts.
Systematic

All aspects of research process are


carefully planned in advance, and nothing
is done in a casual or haphazard fashion
Replication

Repeating studies numerous times to


determine if the same results will be
obtained
Search for Causes

Scientists assume that there is order in


the universe, that there are ascertainable
reasons for the occurrence of all events,
and that science can discover the orderly
nature of the world.
Provisional

Scientific conclusions are always


accepted as tentative and subject to
question and possible refutation
Objective
Scientists attempt to remove their bias,
belief, preferences, wishes and values from
their scientific research

It means the ability to see and


accept the facts as they are, not as
one might wish them to be
TYPES OF
RESEARCH STUDIES

Lesson 2

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• Basic
• Applied

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Approaches to Research

• Qualitative
• Quantitative
• Mixed
Quantitative
- Is a formal objective systematic
process in which numerical data are
used to obtain information about the
world.
- Approach toward scientific inquiry
emerged from a branch of
philosophy called – logical positivism
-  which operates on strict rules of
logic, truth, laws and predictions
Qualitative
• - is systematic, subjective
approach used to describe life
experiences and situations and
give them meaning (Munhall,
2007)
• Evolved from behavioral and
social sciences as a a method of
understanding the unique,
dynamic and holistic nature of
human beings
Qualitative Research

- Philosophical base is
interpretative, humanistic nad
naturalistic and is concerned with
understanding the meaning of
social interactions by those
involved ( Standing, 2009)

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Qualitative Research

Not everything that can be


counted counts and not
everything that counts can be
counted.
( Albert Einstein )
Ethnographic
• Examples:
1. Circumcision Rituals among
Ibanags
2. Child-Rearing Practices of
among Ifugaos
3. Wake and Burial Beliefs and
Practices among Muslims
• There are other types of qualitative
researches

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RESEARCH
PROCESS
Lesson 3

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The Process of Research
• The process is initiated with a
question or problem (step 1)
• Next, goals and objectives are
formulated to deal with the question
or problem (step 2)
• Then the research design is
developed to achieve the objectives
(step 3)
• Results are generated by conducting
the research (step 4)
• Interpretation and analysis of results
follow (step 5)
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The Process of Research

2
5

4 3

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RESEARCH
PROBLEM
Lesson 4

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RESEARCH PROBLEM
• PHASE 1: THE CONCEPTUAL PHASE
Step 1: Formulating the Problem
> The Statement of the Problem (SOP) sets
the tone of the entire research. It has two
parts: The Main Problem and the Specific
Problems.
RESEARCH PROBLEM
* The Main Problem presents the
primary objective of the research
undertaking
* The Specific Problem points out
the details of the research
questions to be (Discussion on IV,
DV, EV, OV)

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Sample Statement of the
Problem(Basic)
• This study aims to determine the effect of
herbal treatment on the level of pain tolerance
of the selected cancer patients.
• Specifically, it will seek answers to the
following questions:
1. What is the profile of the respondent cancer
patients in terms of:
1.1 sex;
1.2 age;
1.3 health history;
1.4 socio-economic status;
1.5 nature of work;
Sample Statement of the
Problem
• 2. What is the level of pain tolerance of the
cancer patients who are exposed to the different
treatments in terms of:
– 2.1 pharmaceutical meds;
– 2.2 herbal-natural treatment?

• 3. Is there a significant difference in the level of


pain tolerance of the cancer patients exposed in
either pharmaceutical meds or herbal treatment?

• 4. Based on the findings of the study, what


nursing care and health teaching plans may be
proposed?
LITERATURE REVIEW
/ CRITICAL
APPRAISSAL
Lesson 5

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Purposes of a Literature Review
• Identification of a research problem
• Orientation to what is known/not known
• Determination of gaps or inconsistencies in a body of
research
• Determination of a need to replicate a study
• Identification of clinical interventions that need to be
tested
Purposes of a Literature Review (cont’d)
• Identification of relevant conceptual frameworks for a
research problem
• Identification of suitable designs and data collection
methods
• Identification of experts who could be used as
consultants on a project
• Assistance in interpreting findings and developing
implications
Sources of Information in a Research
Literature Review

• Principal reliance on primary sources (research


reports written by researchers who conducted the
study)
• Less reliance on secondary sources (summaries of
studies by others)
• Peripheral use of anecdotal reports, opinion
articles, case reports
Types of Search in Electronic
Databases
Subject search
Search for topics or keywords in the database

Textword search
Search for specific words in text fields of the database record

Author search
Search for a specific researcher
RESEARCH DESIGN

Lesson 6

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Types of Research Design
• Correlational
• Field (survey)
• Experimental – target this
• Qualitative
• Meta-analysis
Types of Research Design
• Correlational Study
• Explores or tests relations between
variables
• “Rules out” alternative variables that
could play a role in relations between
variables
• Field
• Studies participants in their natural
setting
• Maximizes realism

Sekaran, Saks
Types of Research Design
(Do this)

• Experimental Designs
• Directly establishes cause-
effect nature of relationship
between variables
• Decreases ambiguity
• Laboratory vs. Field
Experiment
– Artificial setting with high control
over variables
Types of Research Design

• Experimental Designs
• Establish cause via
• Manipulation of cause (aka treatment)
• Temporal precedence of cause (and no other
factor) before effect
• Control of all other extraneous factors
Experimental Research Design
Example
Types of Research Design
(integrate this)
• Qualitative
• Non-quantitative
• Not necessarily informal data collection
(cf. Saks)
• Examples
• Interview/focus group transcripts
• Some kinds of observational/archival data
• Critical incidents methodology
• Helps in
• Formulating hypotheses
• Deeper/richer understanding of
phenomena
• Interpret organization-specific results
Types of Research Design

• Meta Analysis
• Statistically combines results of existing
research to estimate overall size of
relation between variables
• Helps in
• Developing theory
• Identifying research needs,
• Establishing validity/effectiveness of HR
tools
• Can replace large-scale research studies
• Better than literature reviews
Applied Research
(This is what we need to do)
• Applied research is a methodology
used to solve a specific, practical
problem of an individual or group.
• The study and research is used in
business, medicine and education in
order to find solutions that may cure
diseases, solve scientific problems
or develop technology.

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Examples
• Improving the levels of customer
retention for Wall-Mart in China
• Improving employee motivation in Marriot
Hotel, Hyde Park
• Development of strategies to introduce
change in Starbucks global supply-chain
management with the view on cost
reduction
• Fostering creative deviance amongst
employees without compromising respect
for authority.

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Evaluation Research
• Evaluate the impact of an
intervention or policy change or any
program
– Summative Evaluation
> Outcome evaluation – does it work?
Should it continue?
– Formative Evaluation
> Process evaluation – what is it and hw
long does it work?

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PARTICIPANTS/
INSTRUMENTS

Lesson 7

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Important statistical terms
Population:
a set which includes all
measurements of interest
to the researcher
(The collection of all
responses, measurements, or
counts that are of interest)

Sample:
A subset of the population
Why sampling?

Get information about large


populations
 Less costs
 Less field time
 More accuracy i.e. Can Do A Better
Job of Data Collection
 When it’s impossible to study the
whole population
Target Population:
The population to be studied/ to which the
investigator wants to generalize his results
Sampling Unit:
smallest unit from which sample can be
selected
Sampling frame
List of all the sampling units from which
sample is drawn
Sampling scheme
Method of selecting sampling units from
sampling frame
Types of sampling

Non-probability samples

Probability samples
Non probability samples

 Convenience samples (ease of access)


sample is selected from elements of a population
that are easily accessible
 Snowball sampling (friend of friend….etc.)
 Purposive sampling (judgemental)
You chose who you think should be in the
study
Quota sample
Non probability samples

Probability of being chosen is unknown


Cheaper- but unable to generalise
potential for bias
Probability samples

• Random sampling
– Each subject has a known probability of
being selected
• Allows application of statistical sampling
theory to results to:
– Generalise
– Test hypotheses
Conclusions

Probability samples are the best

Ensure
Representativeness
Precision
Methods used in probability samples

Simple random sampling


Systematic sampling
Stratified sampling
Multi-stage sampling
Cluster sampling
Data Collection
• Surveys are the most common method of collecting data.
Three methods of surveying are:
– Telephone surveys
– Mailed questionnaire surveys
– Personal interviews

• Other methods include historical data


gathering (empirical data)
Data collection choice
• What you must ask yourself:
– Will the data answer my research question?
Data collection choice
• To answer that
– You much first decide what your research
question is
– Then you need to decide what data/variables
are needed to scientifically answer the
question
Data collection choice
• If that data exist in secondary form, then
use them to the extent you can, keeping in
mind limitations.
• But if it does not, and you are able to fund
primary collection, then it is the method of
choice.
DATA ANALYSIS
Lesson 8

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Statistics Defined
• Statistics is the science of conducting studies to collect,
organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from
data.
• Descriptive statistics consists of:
– the collection
– Organization
– Summarization
– presentation of data
• Inferential statistics consists of:
– generalizing from samples to populations
– performing estimations
– hypothesis testing
– determining relationships among variables
– making predictions
Measurement Scales
• Nominal—classifies data into mutually exclusive (non-
overlapping), exhausting categories in which no order or ranking
can be imposed on the data.
• Ordinal—classifies data into categories that can be ranked;
however, precise differences between the ranks do not exist.
• Interval—ranks data, and precise differences between units of
measure do exist; however, there is no meaningful zero.
• Ratio—possesses all the characteristics of interval measurement,
and there exists a true zero.
Measurement Scales:
Classification of Data
Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio
level data level data level data Level data

Zip code Grade SAT score Height

Gender Rating IQ Weight

Eye color Ranking Temperature Time


RESEARCH
REPORT
Lesson 9

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Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven
components:
1. Abstract or Summary
2. Introduction
3. Review of Literature
4. Methods
5. Results
6. Conclusions and Discussion
7. References
• Note: Qualitative research reports will
vary from what is presented here.
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Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
1. Abstract or Summary
The abstract or summary tells the reader very briefly what the
main points and findings of the paper are.
– This allows the reader to decide whether the paper is useful to
them.
– Get into the habit of reading only abstracts while searching for
papers that are relevant to your research.
– Read the body of a paper only when you think it will be useful
to you.
Writing a Research Report
A research report has seven components:
1. Abstract or Summary—an example
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
2. Introduction
The introduction tells the reader what the topic of
the paper is in general terms, why the topic is
important, and what to expect in the paper.
– Introductions should funnel from general ideas to
the specific topic of the paper
– Introductions are sometimes folded into literature
reviews
Writing a Research Report
A research report has seven components:
2. Introduction—an example
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
3. Review of Literature
The literature review tells the reader what other
researchers have discovered about the paper’s topic or
tells the reader about other research that is relevant to the
topic.
– A literature review should shape the way readers think
about a topic—it educates readers about what the
community of scholars says about a topic and its
surrounding issues.
– Often what students call a “research paper” is merely a
review of literature.
– Along the way it states facts and ideas about the social
world and supports those facts and ideas with credit for
where they came from.
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
3. Review of Literature
– If an idea cannot be substantiated by the community of
scholars, the literature review makes clear that the author
is speculating, and the logic of the speculation is detailed.
– Irrelevant information is not discussed.
– The literature review has its own voice. The sources of
information are not extensively quoted or “copied and
pasted.” Instead, the author puts facts and ideas into his
or her own words while pointing out where the information
came from.
Think about how you tell family members about the
exciting things you learned in classes…or think about how
you discuss sociology at cocktail parties. You make
claims in you own words…you don’t quote word for word
or cut and paste what you learned.
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
3. Review of Literature
– Literature reviews have parenthetical citations running
throughout. These are part of a systematic way to
document where facts and ideas came from, allowing the
skeptical reader to look up anything that is questionable.
Remember as a kid: “My Momma said…?” Parenthetical
citation is our way of substantiating claims we made in
our own words, without breaking our flow.
– Each citation directs the reader to the references where
complete details on sources can be found.
– Citations consist of authors’ last names and the year of
publication. One finds complete information on sources
by looking up last names and dates in alphabetized
references—so there’s no need to put all that information
in the text.
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
3. Review of Literature
– We have conventions that allow the reader to figure out where
information is coming from.
In text, just pointing out where info came from:
• blah blah (Author Year) or (Lee 2004).
In text, where you quoted someone:
• “Quote quote” (Author Year: Pages) or (Lee 2004: 340).
In text, more than one source:
• (Author Year; Author Year) or (Lee 2004; Seymour & Hewitt 1997)
In text, if you want to use the author’s name in a sentence:
• Author (Year) says that… or Lee (2004) claims that girls…
Quoting a person and using their name:
• Author (Year: Pages) says, “Quote quote…” or Lee (2004: 341) says,
“Girls are more likely to…”
Writing a Research Report
A research report has seven components:
3. Review of Literature—examples of citing
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
3. Review of Literature
– Note that if you want to explain why social events occur
as they do, you will use (and test) explanations that have
worked before. THESE EXPLANATIONS ARE CALLED
THEORIES.
• Most academic literature reviews have a guiding theory that
is used to:
– Frame (or help us understand) facts in the literature.
– Establish expectations (or hypotheses) for the research.
– Justify speculation when no evidence to justify an idea exists in
the literature.
• Sometimes the whole point of a research project is to:
– Determine whether a theory works
– Pit two or more theories against each other to see which works
better
Writing a Research Report

• A research report has seven components:


3. Review of Literature
– Quantitative literature reviews typically end with
statements of:
• Exactly what the researcher’s specific topic is
• Research hypotheses
– For example:
“Men will have higher investment income than women
even when controlling for education.”
“Older Americans will oppose abortion for a woman who
doesn’t want her baby because she is poor.”
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
4. Methods
A METHODS SECTION MUST CONTAIN:
– Descriptions of Data
• Think in terms of: “Who, What, When, Where, Why and How?”
• Target Population
• The Ways Data were Collected:
– Sampling
– Delivery Methods
• Response Rates
• Limitations of Data (Who is omitted, biases)
• Any analyses necessary to bolster claims the data are appropriate
• Sample sizes through various decisions
– Such as:
» eliminating non-Christians from the sample
» using only white respondents
Writing a Research Report

• A research report has seven components:


4. Methods
A METHODS SECTION MUST CONTAIN:
– Descriptions of Variables
• Statement of dependent and independent variables
• Names for the variables—make them intuitive!
• Word for word description of the questions. (sociology
differs from psychology and medicine here)
• The ways variables are coded
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
4. Methods
A METHODS SECTION MUST CONTAIN:
– Manipulations of the variables or data
• For example:
– recoding income from 23 uneven intervals to five equivalent
categories
– removing non-citizens if studying voting patterns
– Reflection on Adequacy and strength of sample and
variables for generalizing to the target population
– The techniques that will be used to test your hypotheses
or research questions
Writing a Research Report
4. Methods
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven
components:
5. Results
The results section chronicles the findings of
the statistical analyses and assesses
whether your expectations (hypotheses)
were correct.
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
5. Results
The results section includes:
– Professional tables showing descriptive and inferential
statistics
– Narrative describing most relevant findings
– The narrative and tables are complementary.
• The narrative discusses ONLY VERY IMPORTANT findings
and refers to where information can be found in the tables
as different facts are discussed.
• The tables contain almost all statistical information so that
the author does not have to write a narrative for every detail
in the analysis.
Writing a Research Report

• A research report has seven


components:
5. Results
The results section includes:
– Evaluations of the hypotheses. Were the
research hypotheses supported?
– Statements about new discoveries or
surprises encountered in the analyses
Writing a Research Report
5. Results
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
6. Conclusions and Discussion
This section assesses how one’s research findings
relate to what the community of scholars knew
already.
– You should summarize the most salient points of
your research (tell the reader what you found out
about your topic).
– Discuss the general significance of your topic and
findings.
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
6. Conclusions and Discussion
– You should discuss the shortcomings of your study
and what implications these have for your findings.
– Discuss things future researchers should investigate
about your topic.
– Leave the reader with the understanding he or she
ought to have about the topic you spent so much
time exploring.
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
7. References
The references are just as important as any other
part of your paper. They are the link to the
community of scholars that will permit your reader to
assess the worthiness of the claims you make in
your paper. References also make the research
process much more efficient because they make it
very easy to look up sources of facts and ideas.
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
7. References
Should be hanging indented, alphabetical on author’s last name (by increasing
year within same author) with information in order determined by type of
source:

Article
Last Name, first name. Year. “Article title.” Journal Name Volume: 1st Page-
Last Page.
Lee, James Daniel. 2005. “Do Girls Change More than Boys? Gender
Differences and Similarities in the Impact of New Relationships on
Identities and Behaviors.” Self and Identity 4:131-47.
Chapter
Last Name, first name. Year. “Chapter Name.” Pages in the book in Book
Name, edited by first name last name. City of Publisher: Publisher.

Book:
Last name, first name. Year. Book Name. City of Publisher: Publisher.
Writing a Research Report
• A research report has seven components:
7. References
Should be hanging indented, alphabetical on author’s last
name (by increasing year within same author) with
information in order determined by type of source:

A website:
Last Name (if available), first name. Year (if available). “Article
or web page title.” Journal or Report Name Volume (if
available). http://address. Date accessed.
Writing a Research Report
A research report has seven components:
7. References—an example
Writing a Research Report
Some General Points

1. Make accurate claims in your paper. Stake out positions—a


kind of, “I think I have the answer to this issue,” position.

2. Cite facts to support your claims.

3. If you can, use theories to support your claims.

4. Every declaration or “fact claim” must be cited or overtly


posed as speculation.
Writing a Research Report
Some General Points

5. Anticipate your reader’s questions as you write:


A. help the reader understand why your topic is important
B. demonstrate to the reader that you adequately investigated your
topic
C. help them anticipate what you’ll say next—everything you say
should seem reasonable to say

6. While writing, keep thinking “The point is to (1) establish


hypotheses (2) describe how to test the hypotheses (3) give
results of tests, and (4) discuss what the reader should
believe about the world.”
Writing a Research Report
Some General Points

7. There is no right answer in a research paper—Just


approximate representations of the truth that are closer or
further away from that truth.

– The truth is:


• From “Community of Scholars”:
What they said about your topic in the journals,
books, and other publications
• From you:
What your methods and analyses revealed about the
topic.
Writing a Research Report
Finally…Avoiding Plagiarism
• What is it?
– All knowledge in your head has either been
copied from some place or originally
discovered by you.
– Most knowledge was copied.
– This is true in most settings. General
knowledge is copied. Most teachers’
lectures are copied knowledge.
– Humans are naturally copiers, but this is not
what we would typically call “plagiarism.”
Writing a Research Report
• The Elements of Style endorses imitation as a way for a writer to
achieve his own style:
– The use of language begins with imitation . . . The imitative life
continues long after the writer is on his own in the language, for it is
almost impossible to avoid imitating what one admires. Never imitate
consciously, but do not worry about being an imitator; take pains instead
to admire what is good. Then when you write in a way that comes
naturally, you will echo the halloos that bear repeating.

Copied from: http://www.answers.com/topic/writing-style-1


ETHICS IN
RESEARCH
Lesson 10

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Principles of Research Ethics

 Respect for Persons

 Beneficence/Non-Maleficence

 Justice/Non-Exploitation
Respect for Persons

Autonomy
 Says that each individual:
 Is unique and free;
 Has the right and capacity to decide;
 Has value and dignity; and
 Has the right to informed consent.

Protection for vulnerable persons


 Special protections must be in place for those whose
decision–making capacity is impaired or diminished,
whether due to physical or social factors
Beneficence/Non-Maleficence

 Protection of
the study participants is the
most important responsibility of the
researcher

 Researchers must:
 Protect the physical, mental and social well-
being of each research participant;
 Minimizes physical and social risks;
 Maximize the possible benefits; and
 Retain the community perspective.
Beneficence/Non-Maleficence

ON BALANCE:
The research should generate more
good than harm; and
Risks of research should be reasonable
in light of the expected benefits to the
individual and to society.
Justice/Non-Exploitation

 The principle that calls for fairness in the conduct of


research is the principle of justice/non-exploitation

 Research must:
 Ensure a fair distribution of risks and benefits
 Research should not be done in a community
that is not likely to benefit from the result
 Conduct equitable recruitment of research
participants; and
 Provide special protection for vulnerable groups.
Important Ethics Concepts
Equipoise
 Equipoise is a state of genuine uncertainty or
doubt about whether one intervention or
treatment is superior to another
 Equipoise is a necessary condition for clinical
research to be morally acceptable
 If the scientific community “knows” that one
treatment is better than another, it would be
considered unethical to withhold it
 Questions remain, however, about how to
decide when “scientific or clinical consensus”
exists about the relative merits of different
treatments
Therapeutic Misconception
“Therapeutic misconception” refers to the
tendency of some research participants to
wrongly assume that whatever drug or
intervention they are offered must work or
be beneficial (or why would it be offered?)

It occurs when the goals of research and


those of therapy or “health care” become
confused in the participants mind.

The therapeutic misconception is a major


threat to “informed consent.”
Voluntary Informed Consent
Voluntary informed consent is the agreement
given by a well-informed person who:

 Has received the necessary information


expressed in spoken words and in writing;

 Has adequately understood the information;


and

 Has made the choice to participate (or not


participate) without coercion.
Essential Elements for Informed Consent
 Research description (what is being studied, what is the
procedure, who is sponsoring the study?);
 Risks of participating;
 Benefits of participating;
 Alternatives to participation, such as other studies or
services in the area;
 Assurance that information will be kept confidential;
 Compensation for time, travel or possible harm;
 Contacts (whom to contact with questions/concerns);
and
 Voluntary participation and withdrawal.
Informed Consent, Cont’d
 Adequate understanding includes the difference
between research and health care
 related concept: “therapeutic misconception”

 After thinking seriously about the information, the


person can arrive at a decision without being forced,
threatened or offered something so valuable that
free choice is impossible
 related concepts: “coercion” and “undue
inducement”
Informed Consent is a Process

 Informed consent is a process of collaborative


communication and decision making, not the signing of a
form
 Informed consent requires that prospective participants:
 Be appropriately informed about the nature of the research
 Adequately understand this information and its implications
 Voluntarily decide to participate, without coercion
 Explicitly consent to participate, orally or in writing
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