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Lecture2 Sentence structure

• Objectives:
• 1. Grammatical Hierarchy
• 2. Clause elements : subject and
predicate
• 3. Two ways of sentence analysis
• 4. Seven basic sentence patterns
• 5. Transformation and expansion of
basic clause types
2. Grammatical Hierarchy
• Morpheme
• (free morpheme, bound morpheme)
• Word
• 1)classification in terms of word-formation
• (simple word, derivative , compound)
• 2) classification in terms of grammatical function
• (open-class words, closed-class words)
• Phrase
• (noun phrase, verb phrase, adjective phrase,
adverb phrase, prepositional phrase)
• Clause
• ( independent clause , dependent/subordinate
clause)
– subject clause
– object clause
– predicative clause
– adverbial clause
• -- appositive clause.
• Sentence (full sentence , minor sentence)
• 1) classification in terms of the purpose of
the speaker
• statement, question ( general question,
special question,alternative question ,tag
question), imperative sentence , exclamation
2. Clause elements
• Subject and predicate

• Subject— the topic or theme of the


sentence, which tells of what the
sentence is about. It is generally
realized by a noun phrase or an
equivalent of noun phrase
• Predicate—says something about the
• subject and keeps the new information
• which the speaker or writer wants to
• transmit to the listener or reader. It
• generally consists of a verb phrase
with or without a complementation.
3. Two ways of sentence
analysis

• 1) To divide the predicate into predicate


verb, object, complement and adverbial.
These elements together with the subject
make the five clause elements.
• 2) To divide the predicate into operator
(aux. Or the first aux. in a complex verb
phrase) and predication (It comprises the
main verb with its complementation, which
including object, complement or adverbial.)
4. Seven basic sentence patterns
• Simple sentences have seven basic
patterns:
• SV (主—动)
• SVC (主—动—补)
• SVO(主—动—宾)
• SV0O(主—动—宾-宾)
• SVOC(主—动—宾—补)
• SVA(主—动—状)
• SVOA(主—动—宾—状)
• SV (usu. V is intransitive verb.)

• --Day broke.

--Things change.
• SVC ( usu. V is linking verb.)

• --He died young.

• --The doctors seemed very capable.


SVO (usu. V is transitive verb/
monotransitive verb.)

• --I want a cup of tea.

• --Robbie didn’t deny the facts.



--She heard whisperings.
• SV0O ( V is ditransitive verb.)

• --He gave me a nice present.

• --We gave the baby a bath.



--Judith paid me a visit.
• SVOC(主—动—宾—补)( V is complex
transitive verb.)

• --I found this book easy.

• --He watched the maid come in.

• --I heard him coming up the stairs slowly,


as if he were carrying something heavy.
• SVA (A=adverbial)
• --He will flying to shanghai.
• --They stayed in a hotel.

• SVOA
• --I met her at the railway station.
-- I put the material evidence in front of
him.
SV0O
• In SV0O,sometimes indirect object can be
shifted to the direct object by using
correspondent prepositions such as “to”,
“for”,“of” . that is: “v+sb/sth+prep+sb”。
compare:
• Betty gave her daughter an apple.
• →Betty gave an apple to her daughter.
• Father bought him a bike.
• →Father bought a bike for him.
He asked me a question.
• →He asked a question of me.
SV0O
• 1) Verbs that can be used in “v.+
sb/sth+to+sb”:
• bring, take, show, pass, lend, return;
owe, offer, leave, give, send, teach,
read, write, pay etc. eg:

• owe money to the bank


offer battle to someone
SV0O

• --We want a teacher to teach us violin.

• --He offered me a glass of wine..

• --She brought her sister to my office.

• --He died two and a half years later,


leaving everything to his wife.
• 2) Verbs that can be used in “v+sb/sth
+for+sb”:

• find, spare, save, fetch, buy, get, make


• choose, pick, select , sing, play, cook,

• -- Please fetch some sandwiches for


this hungry boy.

2) Verbs that can be used in “v+sb/sth+for
+sb”:

• --Would you please spare me a cup of wine?

• --Has she made you an offer for your car?



--He never made me an apology.

5. Transformation and expansion
of basic clause types

• 1) basic clause types statement


• affirmative -> negative
• active-> passive
• 2) Expansion of basic clause types

• Compound sentence (coordination:


linked by coordinators such as:
and, but, so, however, therefore, or )

• -- I don’t like her but John likes her very


much
• 2 Complex sentence (by means of adding
modifiers or subordinate clauses.)

• --Standing in front of the mirror, Jim looked


at his image, wondering at the big change
that had come over him in recent years.
• Compound-complex sentence (by means
of the combination of coordination and
subordination.)
• eg:
• --The policeman looked at me suspiciously,
and he asked me what I wanted.