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DCC 3122 : GEOTECHNICAL LABORATORY

REPORT : SAND DISPLACEMENT TEST


LECTURER NAME PUAN NOOR AZALINA BINTI
KHALIL

BIL. NAME MATRIX NO.


1. MOHAMMAD HAFIZ BIN MOHAMAD 16DKA18F1125
MUSLIM
2. NUR SYAHIDA BINTI MUHD. ZAMZURI 16DKA18F1099
3. NURUL NAJIHAH BINTI ARIF 16DKA18F1102
4. MUNIRAH BINTI ZAILANI 16DKA18F1107
Video Sand Displacement Test
SAND DISPLACEMENT TEST

INTRODUCTION
By conducting this test it is possible to determine the field density of the soil. The
moisture content is likely to vary from time and hence the field density also. So it is
required to report the test result in terms of dry density. The relationship that can be
established between the dry densities with known moisture content is as follow :

γd = γb / (1 + w )
γd= Dry density
γb= Bulk density
w= water content
The purpose of the test is to find the in situ density of natural or compacted soils
using sand pouring cylinders.
EQUIPMENTS

1. Sand pouring cylinder


2. Tools for excavating holes
3. Cylindrical calibrating container
4. Metal containers
5. Metal tray
6. Digital weight scale (+/-0.01g)
PROCEDURE
A) A) Calibration
i. Fill the sand-pouring cylinder with sand, within about 10mm of its top. Determine the mass of
the cylinder (M1) to the nearest gram.
ii. Place the sand-pouring cylinder vertically on the calibrating container. Open the shutter to allow
the sand run out from the cylinder . When there is no further movement of the sand in the
cylinder , close the shutter.
iii. Lift the pouring cylinder from the calibrating container and weight it to the nearest gram (M3).
iv. Again fill the pouring cylinder with sand, within 10mm of its top.
v. Open the shutter and allow the sand to run out of the cylinder. When the volume of the sand let
out is equal to the volume of the calibrating container, close the shutter.
vi. Place the cylinder over a plane surface, such as a glass plate. Open the shutter. The sand fills the
cone of the cylinder. Close the shutter when no further movement of sand takes place.
vii. Remove the cylinder. Collect the sand left on the glass plate. Determine the mass of sand (M2)
that had filled the cone by weighing the collected sand.
viii. Determine the dry density of sand, as shown in data sheet, part-1.
B) Determine of bulk density of soil
i. Place the sand pouring cylinder concentrically on the top of the calibrating container with the
shutter closed making sure that constant mass (M0) is maintained.
ii. Open the shutter of cylinder and allow the sand to move into the container. When no further
movement is seen, close the shutter and find the mass of sand left in the cylinder (M2)
iii. Repeat step 2-3 at least thrice and find the mean mass (M2).
C) Determine of field density of soil
i. Level surface of the soil in the open field
ii. Place metal tray on the surface haring a circular hole of 10cm diameter at the center. Dig a
hole of this diameter up to about 15cm dept. Collect all the excavation soil in a tray and find
the mass of excavation soil (M).
iii. Remove the tray and place the sand-pouring cylinder concentrically on the hole. Open the
shutter and allow the sand to run into the hole till no further movement of sand is noticed.
Close the shutter and determine mass of sand which is left in the cylinder, (M3).
iv. The representative sample is taken from the excavated soil for determination of water
content.
DATA

 Detemination of mass of and in the cone


No test 1
Volume of calibrating (mᶟ), Vc 11.39
Mass of sand in cylinder before pouring (M₀) (kg) 9.314
Mean mass of sand in cone, (M₁) (kg) 0.494

Determination of bulk density of sand


No test 1
Mean mass of sand leave in cylinder afte pouring (M₂) 7.299
(kg)
Mass of sand filling calibrating container (Mc= M₀- 1.581
M₁-M₂)
Bulk density of sand (pₛ = Mc / Vc) (kg / mᶟ) 0.139
Determination bulk density and unit weight of soil

Mass of wet soil from the hole (M) (kg) 1.169


Mass of sand in cylinder after pouring in the hole 7.127
(M₂) (kg)
Mass of sand in the hole, (Ms = M₀-M₁-M₃) (kg) 1.753
Bulk density of soil, p= M / Mₛ x pₛ (kg/mᶟ) 4.798
Dry density of sand pd = p / (1+w) 4.505

No of cone 1
Wet soil 0.079
Dry soil 0.077
Cone weight 0.046
Water content 6.5%
CALCULATION

Vc = πr²h
= π(5)² (0.145)
=11.39 mᶟ
Mc = M₀ - M₁ - M₂
= (9.374 – 0.494 – 7.299)
= 1.581
Ps = Mc / Vc
= (1.581 / 11.39)
= 0.139 kg / mᶟ
Ms = M₀ - M₁ - M₃
= ( 9.374 – 0.494 – 7.127 )
= 1.753 kg
p = M / Ms x Ps
= 1.169 / ( 1.753 x 0.139 )
= 4.798 kg / mᶟ
Pd = p / (1+w)
= 4.798 / (1+0.065)
= 4.505
FORMULA

Vc = πr²h
Mc = M₀ - M₁ - M₂
Ps = Mc / Vc
Ms = M₀ - M₁ - M₃
P = M / Ms x ps
Pd = p / (1+w)
PRE-LAB QUESTION
 What is the objective of sand displacement test ?
Determine the in situ density of natural or compacted soils using sand pouring cylinders.
 What is the relationship that can be established between the dry density with known
moisture content ?
 γd = γb / (1 + w )

 γd= Dry density


 γb= Bulk density
 w= water content

 What are the apparatus that need in this test ?


There are sand pouring cylinder, tools for excavating holes, cylindrical calibrating
cointainer, metal container, metal tray, weight scales.
 Discuss the different method of compaction of :
a) Cohensionless soil
b) Cohensive soil
c) Cohension less soils cannot be compacted by static pressure, vibration is the only
effective method.
d) Cohensive soils are not suspectible to vibration, static pressure is the method of
compaction for cohensive soils and kneading also works.
CONCLUSION
What we can conclude from the test is sand displacement is determine the in situ
density of natural or compacted soils using sand pouring cylinders.
Sand displacement method (standard method, but does not apply to fill a big stone
embankment and other porous materials, holes or large degree of compaction test) is
the use of the basic principles of particle size 0.30 – 0.60mm or 0.25 – 0.50mm
uniform clean sand, from the whereabouts of a certain high degree of freedom to the
test inside the cave, according to their unit weight the same principle to measure the
volume of test hole ( using standard test hole sand to replace the aggregate ), and in
accordance with the moisture content of aggregate to calculate the sample, the
measure dry density.
REFERENCE

 https://www.scribd.com/document/340989683/lab-report-soil-sand-replacement-
method-docx
 https://www.slideshare.net/NurulAdha2/sand-replacement
 https://civilseek.com/sand-replacement-method/
 Geotechnical book

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