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Cell Structure

& Function
Cell Theory
• All living things are made up of cells.
• Cells are the smallest working units of all
living things.
• All cells come from pre-existing cells
through cell division.
Definition of Cell

A cell is the smallest unit that is


capable of performing life functions.
Examples of Cells
Amoeba Proteus

Plant Stem

Bacteria

Red Blood Cell

Nerve Cell
Two Types of Cells

•Prokaryotic
•Eukaryotic
Prokaryotes

1
Cytoplasm

Cell membrane
Prokaryotic
They are the simplest form of life.

No nucleus.

Do not have structures surrounded


by membranes (organelles)

 Few internal structures

They are unicellular_(One-celled organisms).

Example: Bacteria
Eukaryotic
are the most complex form of life.

They have nucleus

Contain organelles surrounded by membranes

They are multicellular organisms (composed of


many cells).

Most living organisms

Examples: animals and plants.


Common Characteristics

• All cells are surrounded by a barrier called


the cell membrane
• They contain the molecule that carries
biological information-DNA
Eukaryotic
Plant Animal
Compare and contrast
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

Differences Similarity Differences


Prokaryote Eukaryote
“Typical” Animal Cell
“Typical” Plant Cell
Differentia between animal and plant cells
CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Cell Parts
Organelles
ORGANELLES
• Cytoplasm lies
between the cell
membrane and
nucleus and
contains the
organelles.
• Cytosol is a gelatin
like aqueous fluid
that contains salts,
minerals and
organic molecules
Mitochondria
• Sites of chemical reactions that transfer
energy from organic compounds to ATP
• ATP- main energy source for cells
• Cells with high energy requirements
have more mitochondria ex: muscle
and liver cells
• Have 2 membranes
• Smooth outer membrane serves as a
boundary between the mitochondria
and the cytosol
• Inner membrane has many folds called
Cristae – they enlarge the surface area
for more chemical reactions
They are called the
• Have their own DNA ( for reproduction) “POWER HOUSE”
of the cell
Ribosomes
• Most numerous
• Not surrounded by a
membrane
• Made up of proteins and RNA
• RNA is packaged into the
ribosomes then transported to
the cytosol
• Some ribosomes are free
• Some are attached to the
endoplasmic reticulum
• Protein is synthesized
(produced) in the ribosomes
• Proteins to be used in the
cytosol – free ribosomes
• Proteins to be exported or
inserted in the cell membrane
– ribosomes on the ER
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• System of membranous tubules and
sacs
• Intracellular Highway – molecules
move from one part of the cell to
another
• 2 types – rough and smooth
• Rough covered by ribosomes –
prominent in cells that make large
amounts of proteins to be exported
from the cell
• Smooth – no ribosomes
• Synthesis of steriods in gland cells
• Regulation of calcium in muscle cells
• Breakdown of toxic substances in liver
cells
Golgi Apparatus
• Processing,
packaging and
secreting organlle
• System of
membranes
• Series of flattened
sacs with convex
shape
• Works with the ER to
modify proteins
LYSOSOMES
• Small spherical
organelles
• Enclose hydrolytic
enzymes within single
membranes
• Digest proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids,
DNA and RNA
• Digest old organelles,
bacterias, viruses
• Rare in plant cells
CYTOSKELETON
• Maintains the shape and size
of cell
• Network of long protein strands
• Not surrounded by a
membrane
• Participates in the movement of
organelles
• 2 major components –
microfilaments and
microtubules
• Microfilaments – threads made
of actin (protein) – smallest
strands
• Microtubules – largest strands
that are hollow tubes – help the
cell divide by forming spindle
fibers that extend across the
cell
CILIA AND FLAGELLA
• Hairlike organelles
that extend from the
surface of the cell
• Assist in movement
• Cilia – short and
present in large
numbers
• Flagella – long and
less numerous
Nucleus
• Most prominent structure
• Maintains its shape with a
protein skeleton called the
nuclear matrix
• Double membrane – nuclear
envelope
• Inside the envelope –
chromation (DNA & protein)
• When the cell is about to
divide it forms the
chromosomes
• Stores hereitary information in
its DNA
• RNA is copied from DNA
• RNA travels from nucleus to
the cytosol through small holes
in the envelope – nuclear
pores
• Contains the nucleolus – the
site where ribosomes are
synthesized
Nucleolus
• Inside nucleus
• Contains RNA to build
proteins
• Site where ribosome
are synthesized
Cell Wall
• Most commonly found
in plant cells &
bacteria
• Supports & protects
cells
Chloroplast
• Usually found in plant
cells
• Contains green
chlorophyll
• Where
photosynthesis takes
place
Label the parts of the cell

http://www.phschool.com/atschool/phbio/activities/cbd-3072/simbase.htm
http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/cell/cell.htm
Cytoplasm
Ans. The cell structure and function
• Cytoplasm
Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
• ATP Hyghway
• Muscle and liver 2 Rought and smooth
• Crytal Ribosome
• Cristae Protein steroids
• They enlarge the surface area for more
• Reproduction

• Ribosome
• Membrane
• Proteins
• Cytosol
• Endoplasmic rediculum
• Protein
• Produced
Ans.
•Fedex, DHL
Lysosome Nucleus
• Animal Nuclear envelop
DNE and protein
Cytoskeloeton Heridity
• Shape and size
• Membrane
• Microfilament & microtubule
• Spindel fiber Nuleoulus
Ribosome
Cilial and Flagella
• Movement

• Nucleus
• Nuclear envelop
• DNE and protein
• Heridity
Name: Date: 1/12/11
Quiz: cell structure and function
Multiple choice 1-22
No note can be used

Color and label parts of cell:


Animal and plant cells
ANIMAL CELL
PLANT CELL
The Human Cheek Cell

http://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/cheekcell.html
The Human Cheek Cell

Materials
Microscope
Methylene blue
Toothpick
Slide
Cover slide
The Human Cheek Cell
Procedure
• 1. Put a drop of methylene blue on a slide. Caution: methylene blue
will stain clothes and skin.
• 2. Gently scrape the inside of your cheek with the flat side of a
toothpick. Scrape lightly.
• 3. Stir the end of the toothpick into the stain and throw the toothpick
away.
• 4. Place a cover slip onto the slide
• 5. Use the SCANNING objective to focus. You probably will not see
the cells at this power.
• 6. Switch to low power. Cells should be visible, but they will be small
and look like nearly clear purplish blobs. If you are looking at
something dark purple, it is probably not a cell
• 7. Once you think you have located a cell, switch to high power and
refocus.(Remember, do NOT use the coarse adjustment knob at
this point)
The Human Cheek Cell
Sketch
---Sketch the cell at low and high power. Label the nucleus, cytoplasm,
and cell membrane. Draw your cells to scale.

Low High
Scanning
The Human Cheek Cell
Questions
1. This cell is which cell type?
A. animal B. plant C. prokaryotic
2. The shape of this cell, overall, is:
A. round B. rectangular C. other
3. What stain did you use to see this cell type?
4. What material does this particular stain reveal?
5. Which organelles were apparent in this cell?
A. nucleus B. chloroplast C. central vacuole
6. Which cells are larger?
A. cheek B. bacteria
7. Is the cheek cell a eukaryote or prokaryote? How do you know?
8. Cheek cells do not move on their own, so you will not find two
organelles that function for cell movement. Name these organelles.
The Human Cheek Cell
Questions

• 1. Why is methylene blue necessary?


• 2. Cheek cells do not move on their own, so you will not find two
organelles that function for cell movement. Name these organelles.
• 3. The light microscope used in the lab is not powerful enough to
view other organelles in the cheek cell. What parts of the cell were
visible?
• 4. List 2 organelles that were NOT visible but should have been in
the cheek cell.
• 5. Is the cheek cell a eukaryote or prokaryote? How do you know
• 6. Keeping in mind that the mouth is the first site of chemical
digestion in a human. Your saliva starts the process of breaking
down the food you eat. Keeping this in mind, what organelle do you
think would be numerous inside the cells of your mouth?
Surrounding the Cell
Cell Membrane
• Outer membrane of cell
that controls movement
in and out of the cell
• Double layer
Inside the Cell
Nucleus

• Directs cell activities


• Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear
membrane
• Contains genetic material - DNA
Nuclear Membrane
• Surrounds nucleus
• Made of two layers
• Openings allow
material to enter and
leave nucleus
Chromosomes
• In nucleus
• Made of DNA
• Contain instructions
for traits &
characteristics
Cytoplasm
• Gel-like mixture
• Surrounded by cell membrane
• Contains hereditary material
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Moves materials around
in cell
• Smooth type: lacks
ribosomes
• Rough type (pictured):
ribosomes embedded in
surface
Ribosomes
• Each cell contains
thousands
• Make proteins
• Found on ribosomes
& floating throughout
the cell
Mitochondria
• Produces energy through
chemical reactions –
breaking down fats &
carbohydrates
• Controls level of water and
other materials in cell
• Recycles and decomposes
proteins, fats, and
carbohydrates
Golgi Bodies
• Protein 'packaging
plant'
• Move materials within
the cell
• Move materials out of
the cell
Lysosome
• Digestive 'plant' for
proteins, fats, and
carbohydrates
• Transports undigested
material to cell
membrane for removal
• Cell breaks down if
lysosome explodes
Vacuoles
• Membrane-bound
sacs for storage,
digestion, and waste
removal
• Contains water
solution
• Help plants maintain
shape
CELL WALL

• Lies outside of the VACUOLES


cell membrane
•Fluid filled
• Helps support and
protect the plant cell organelles that
• Contains long chains store enzymes
of cellulose – hardens and metabolic
the entire structure
wastes
• Pores in the cell wall
allow ions to enter or •Some vacuoles
exit the cell may make up
90% of the cell
Chloroplast
• Surrounded by 2
membranes and contain
DNA
• Some store starch or fats
• Some contain pigments
that absorb visible light –
chlorophyll
• Ex Chloroplasts – energy
of sunlight is converted
into chemical energy each
chloroplast encloses a
system of membranous
sacs called thylakoids
INTERACTIVE ACTIVITY
• http://www.phschool.com/atschool/phbio/activities/cbd-3072/simbase.htm
• http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/cell/cell.html (label)
• http://www.cellsalive.com/quiz1.htm (Quiz)
• http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html (note)
• http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~bi107vc/fa02/terry/cells.html (Prok vs Euk.)
• http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_main.html