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ASSIGNMENT NO: 1

TITLE: Report on use of Dimensional tolerances, Geometrical


tolerances and Surface finish symbols in machine component drawings.

❖ TOLERANCE :-
A tolerance is an acceptable amount of dimensional variation that will still
allow an object to function correctly.
Dimensional Tolerance is related to, but different from fit in mechanical
engineering, which is a designed-in clearance or interference between two
parts.

> Use of Dimensional Tolerance


• It is almost impossible and uneconomical to maintain the strict degree of
accuracy as listed on a plan.
• To accommodate this, it is normal to display measurements with a plus
or minus (+/-) tolerance which allows for some margin of error.
• Care needs to be taken however when determining such +/-tolerance,
particularly where there are mating parts.

> TYPES OF TOLERANCES-

• BILATERAL TOLEARNCES
• UNILATERAL TOLERANCES

> BILATERAL TOLERANCES-

Variation is permitted in both positive and negative directions from the nominal
dimension. The dimension of the part is allowed to vary on both sides of basic
size, i.e. the limits of tolerance lie on either side of basic size,

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but may be necessarily equally disposed off. Possible for a bilateral
tolerance to be unbalanced, ex: 2.500 +0.010, -0.005.

> UNILATERAL TOLERANCES-


Variation from the specified dimension is permitted in only one direction.
Unilateral system is preferred, especially when precision fits are required,
because it is easy and simpler to determine deviations.

Fig mmnvmkv ❖ GEOMETRIC

TOLERANCES-
Symbols or Geometric Characteristics are what most often come to mind when
people think about GD&T. There are a total of fourteen GD&T characteristics, and
the symbols that represent them are shown in the symbol “cheat sheet” below.

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and location of derived median points. The primary use and description of each
characteristic is also shown.
GD&T is a feature-based system, and parts are composed of features.
chart represents geometric tolerance and their symbol-

GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE
SYMBOL CONTROL SUMMARY
CHARACTERISTIC TYPE

FLATNESS

— STRAIGHTNESS CONTROLS FORM (SHAPE) OF SURFACES AND


FORM
CAN ALSO CONTROL FORM OF AN AXIS OR
CYLINDRICITY

AT
(NO RELATION BETWEEN MEDIAN PLANE
FEATURES) DATUM REFERENCE IS NOT ALLOWED

o CIRCULARITY (ROUNDNESS)
PERPENDICULARITY

_L ORIENTATION CONTROLS ORIENTATION (TILT) OF SURFACES,

//
AXES, OR MEDIAN PLANES FOR SIZE AND NON-
PARALLELISM (NO RELATION BETWEEN SIZE FEATURES
FEATURES) DATUM REFERENCE REQUIRED
ANGULARITY

LOCATES CENTER POINTS, AXES, AND MEDIAN


POSITION PLANES FOR SIZE FEATURES
ALSO CONTROLS ORIENTATION

LOCATION
PROFILE OF A SURFACE LOCATES SURFACES
ALSO CONTROLS SIZE, FORM, AND
ORIENTATION OF SURFACES BASED ON DATUM
PROFILE OF ALINE REFERENCE

& TOTAL RUNOUT


RUNOUT
CONTROLS SURFACE COAXIALITY
ALSO CONTROLS FORM AND ORIENTATION OF
/• CIRCULAR RUNOUT SURFACES

© CONCENTRICITY
LOCATION
LOCATES DERIVED MEDIAN POINTS OF A
FEATURE
(DERIVED MEDIAN POINTS) NOT COMMON...CONSIDER USING POSITION,
— SYMMETRY RUNOUT, OR PROFILE

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SURFACE FINISH-
Surface Finish Symbols:

The surface texture of a component often affects its performance. Therefore, one
has to specify the surface finish that is required for acceptable performance. The
surface texture features, and how the finish mark is used for communicating the
desired finish. Surface Texture is the variation in the surface in the form of
roughness, waviness, lay, and flaws.

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• Symbols of surface finish

Symbols of surface finish which are providing at the finishing stage which
gives value of surface finish. The symbols to indicate the information in
connection with surface roughness are represented by symbolically. This is the
important characteristics for surface finish

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Fig. 1 Surface Roughness Symbol
• Waviness is the widely spaced variation (millimeters, or inches) exceeding
the roughness width cutoff. It is assumed that the roughness is superimposed
on a surface that is wavy in nature.
• Waviness height is the crest to trough height variation of the waves.
• Waviness width is the wave length i.e. distance from crest to crest or from
trough to trough.
• Lay is the orientation of the surface pattern. This is determined by the
manufacturing processes used.
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The lay symbol may be:

S The Perpendicular symbol shown in figure 11.12 indicating that the lay
direction is perpendicular to the line to which the symbol is applied;

S The = symbol which indicates that the lay direction is parallel to the line;

S The X symbol indicates that the Lay is angular in two directions relative
to the line representing the surface

S The M symbol indicates a multidirectional Lay;

S The C symbol indicates that the lay is approximately circular relative to


the centre of the surface;

S The R symbol indicates that the lay is approximately radial relative to the
centre of the surface;

S The P symbol indicates that the Lay is particulate, non-directional, or


protuberant.

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^ Symbols_for_different_butt_weld_notches-

]-notch HaIf V-notch V-


notch

J-notch U-notch X-notch

> Symbols indicating fillet welds-

> These are the types of welds used most commonly for welding steel
and aluminum structures. There are other types of welds like slot (or
plug) and resistance spot and seam welds that are not shown here. Slot
welds are generally used in cases where access for performing fillet
welds is impossible or so awkward that the result would be a totally
unsatisfactory weld. Resistance welding is usually used for thin sheet
material like that used in autobodies .etc. For these symbols and more
detail on welding methods and the use of welding symbols I suggest
that you refer to one of the many comprehensive textbooks available
on engineering graphics.

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