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AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST SYSTEM

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INTRODUCTION
• Exhaust gas or flue gases is emitted as a result of the combustion
of fuels such as petrol, diesel or fuel oil.

• A car's exhaust system is responsible for transporting the burned


exhaust, or combustion gases, from its engine and out through the
tail pipe.

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COMPONENTS OF EXHAUST SYSTEM
• Exhaust Manifold
• Exhaust down Pipes
• Catalytic Converter
• Resonator
• Muffler
• The Tail Pipe

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EXHAUST MANIFOLD
An Exhaust Manifold is the upper end of the exhaust system.

• It is attached directly to the side of the engine and


receives the burned exhaust gases from the car's
engine.
• The exhaust manifold burns any fuel that was
inadequately burned by the engine and funnels
it down into the main exhaust system.

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EXHAUST DOWN PIPES
• The exhaust pipes are
responsible for transporting the
burned exhaust gases from the
engine and the exhaust manifold
to the catalytic converter.
• It can be metal or aluminum.
• The pipes are used to create an
effective sealed pathway.

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TYPES OF PIPES
There are basically two types:
• Regular pipe
• Flexible pipe
• Regular exhaust pipe is solid, typically available in straight lengths, bent
configurations and elbows.

• Flexible exhaust pipe is flexible enough to bend these and allow thermal
expansion of the system.

• The exhaust system may be sealed by welding joints or using exhaust


clamps as a simple, effective way to seal overlapping pipes.

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CATALYTIC CONVERTER
A catalytic converter is a device that uses a catalyst to convert three
harmful compounds in car exhaust into harmless compounds.

• Hydrocarbons

• Carbon monoxide

• Nitrogen oxides

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POLLUTANTS FROM CAR EXHAUST
• CO(carbon monoxide)-The main source of CO in cities is the internal
combustion engine, where it is produced by incomplete combustion.
• CO2(carbon dioxide)- The internal combustion engine contributes to the
increased concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere.
• NOx(nitrogen oxide)- forms when fuels are burned at high temperatures.
• HC(hydrocarbons)- Much of the hydrocarbon fuel passes through the
process unconsumed and is expelled into the atmosphere along with other
exhaust fumes.
• Other pollutants such as C6H6 — Benzene and its derivatives and
• SO2 — sulphur dioxide are also present.

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DIFFERENT CATALYSTS
There are two different types of catalyst at work:-
• Reduction Catalyst - first stage
It uses platinum and rhodium to help
reduce the NOx emissions.
• Example
2NO => N2 + O2 or 2NO2 => N2 +2O2
• Oxidation Catalyst -second stage
It uses platinum and palladium to help
reduce the unburned hydrocarbons
and carbon monoxide by burning
(oxidizing) them.
• Example
2CO + O2 => 2CO2
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MUFFLER
• A muffler or silencer is a device for reducing the amount of noise
emitted by the exhaust of an internal combustion engine.
• The main muffler absorbs the noise of the exhaust gas and is
composed of an outer shell, inner plates, inner pipes, end plates and
other components.

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MUFFLER

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WHAT HAPPENS INSIDE A MUFFLER



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TAIL PIPE
• The tail pipe is end of the final length of exhaust pipe which ends with just a
straight or angled cut where it vents to open air.

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WORKING IN BRIEF

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IMPORTANCE OF EXHAUST SYSTEM
The exhaust system has three major functions:
• To channel out the waste products of combustion out of the engine.

• To reduce the noise generated by the engine.

• To clean up the emissions that are harmful to the environment.

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Differential
USES AND WORKING

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What is differential
• Differential is a device that splits the engine power two ways, allowing each output
to spin at a different speed
• To transmit the power to the wheels while allowing them to rotate at different
speeds

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Why You Need a Differential
• Car wheels spin at different speeds
• If there is no differential, the wheels be locked and forced to spin at the
same speed,so one tyre will have to slip when turning

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• Front wheel drive vehicles need a differential at front which are drive wheels
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• Rear wheel drive vehicles need a differential at rear which are drive wheels
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• These all-wheel-drive vehicles need a differential between each set of drive wheels
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Parts

• Pinion Drive Gear: transfers power from


the driveshaft to the ring gear.
• Ring Gear: transfers power to the Differential case assembly.
• Side/spider gears: help both wheels to turn independently when turning.
• Axle housing: metal body that encloses and supports parts of the rear axle assembly.
• Rear drive axles: steel shafts that transfer torque from the differential assembly to the drive wheels.

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How it works
• When going straight ahead:
• The differential housing and its components
rotate as a single unit
• Each side gear rotates at the same speed
• Power is transferred equally to both wheels

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How it works
• When turning a corner:
• An equal percentage of speed is removed from
one axle and given to the other

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DRIVE SHAFTPINIONGEARRING GEARSPIDER GEARSIDE GEARSAXLES

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Disadvantages
• Disadvantages:
• A Open differential sends most of the power to the wheel with the least load
or strain on it.
• This means that if one wheel loses traction(friction) due to ice or sand, the
differential sends all the power to the wheel causing the car to get stuck on
the patch.
• Another place where it can cause a problem is if you are off-roading.(The
contact between wheel and tyre will break)

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• Problems with open differential
• Low-traction situations

• Solutions
• Clutch-type limited slip differential(provides extra resistance by means of
clutch plates and overcomes low traction problem)

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REFERENCES
1)https://auto.howstuffworks.com/differential1.htm
2)http://web.mit.edu/2.972/www/reports/differential/differen
tial.html
3)https://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-differential
4)https://www.jegs.com/c/Exhaust-Systems/10245/10002/-1
5)https://www.magnaflow.com/automotive-
performance/exhaust-systems
6)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2090447
917301156

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THANK YOU

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