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 TEAM NO:-8

 TEAM MATES:-1.PARDHU SARADHI


 2.ABDULLAH SHAIK
 3.DEEDIPYA
 4.ROHITH KUMAR
 5.RUFUS RAJU
HOW DO SOLAR PANELS WORKS? HOW ABOUT WIND TURBINES?
 IN SIMPLE WAY SOLAR PANELS WORKS BY ALLOWING PHOTONS, OR PARTICLES OF LIGHT, TO KNOCK
ELECTRONS FREE FROM ATOMS, GENERATING FLOW OF ELECTRICITY. SOLAR PANELS ACTUALLY
COMPRISE MANY, SMALLER UNITS CALLED PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS-SIMPLY MEANS THEY CONVERT
SUNLIGHT INTO ELECTRICITY. MANY CELLS LINKED TOGETHER MAKE UP A SOLAR PANEL.
 SOLAR PANELS WORK BY ABSORBING SUNLIGHT WITH PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS, GENERATING DIRECT
CURRENT(DC) ENERGY AND THEN CONVERTING IT TO USABLE ALTERNATING CURRENT(AC) ENERGY
WITH THE HELP OF INVERTER TECHNOLOGY. AC ENERGY THEN FLOWS THROUGH THE HOMES
ELECTRIC PANEL AND IS DISTRIBUTED ACCORDINGLY. HERE ARE THE MAIN STEPS FOR HOW SOLAR
PANELS WORK FOR YOUR HOME:
 STEP1:-PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ABSORB THE SUNS ENERGY AND CONVERT IT TO DC ELECTRICITY.
 STEP2:-THE SOLAR INVERTER CONVERTS DC ELECTRICITY FROM YOUR SOLAR MODULES TO AC
ELECTRICITY, WHICH IS USED BY MOST HOME APPLIANCES.
 STEP3:-ELECTRICITY FLOWS THROUGH YOUR HOME, POWERING ELECTRONIC DEVICES.
 STEP4:-EXCESS ELECTRICITY PRODUCED BY SOLAR PANELS IS FED IN THE ELECTRIC GRID.
 THE STANDARD SOLAR PANEL ALSO KNOWN AS SOLAR MODULE CONSISTS OF A LAYER OF SILICON
CELLS, A METAL FRAME, A GLASS CASING, AND VARIOUS WIRING TO ALLOW CURRENT TO FLOW FROM
THE SILICONCELLS. SILICON IS A NONMETAL WITH CONDUCTIVE PROPERTIES THAT ALLOW IT TO
ABSORB AND CONVERT SUNLIGHT INTO ELECTRICITY. WHEN LIGHT INTERACTS WITH A SILICON
CELL,IT CAUSES ELECTRONS TO BE SET INTO MOTION, WHICH INITIATES A FLOW OF ELECTRIC
CURRENT. THIS IS KNOW AS THE “PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL“, AND IT DESCRIBES THE GENERAL
FUNCTIONALITY OF SOLAR PANEL TECHNOLOGY.
 THE GENERAL PHOTHVOLTAIC PROCESS, AS DESCRIBED ABOVE, WORKS THROUGH THE FOLLOWING
STEPS:
 1.THE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELL ABSORBS SOLAR RADIATION.
 2.WHEN THE SUN RAYS INTERACT WITH THE SILICON CELL, ELECTRONS BEGIN TO MOVE , CREATING A
FLOW OF ELECTRIC CURRENT.
 3.WIRELESS CAPTURE AND FEED THIS DIRECT CURRENT(DC)ELECTRICITY TO A SOLAR INVERTER TO
BE CONVERTED TO ALTERNATING CURRENT(AC)ELECTRICITY
 AC ELECTRICITY WAS CHOSEN FOR THE U.S. ELECTRICAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY BECAUSE IT IS
LESS EXPENSIVE TO TRANSMIT OVER LONG DISTANCES. HOWEVER SOLAR PANELS CREATE DC
ELECTRICITY. HOW DO WE GET DC ELECTRICITY INTO AC GRID? WE USE AN INVERTER.
 SOLAR INVERTER:-A SOLAR INVERTER TAKES THE DC ELECTRICITY FROM THE SOLAR ARRAY AND
USES THAT TO CREATE AC ELECTRICITY. INVERETERS ARE LIKE THE BRAINS OF THE SYSTEM. ALONG
WITH INVERTING DC TO AC POWER, THEY ALSO PROVIDE GROUND FAULT PROTECTION AND SYSTEM
STATS, INCLUDING VOLTAGE AND CURRENT ON AC AND DC CIRCUITS, ENERGY PRODUCTION AND
MAXIMUM POIWER POINT TRACKING.
 CENTRAL INVERTERS HAVE DOMINATED THE SOLAR INDUSTRY SINCE THE BEGINING.THE
INTRODUCTION OF MICRO-INVERTERS IS ONE OF THE BIGGEST TECHNOLOGY SHIFTS IN PV INDUSTRY.
MICRO INVERTERS OPTIMIZE FOR INDIVIDUAL SOLAR PANEL, NOT FOR AN ENTIRE SOLAR SYSTEM, AS
CENTRAL INVERTERS DO. THIS ENABLESEVERY SOLAR PANEL TO PERFORM AT MAXIMUM POTENTIAL.
 WHEN A CENTRAL INVERTER IS USED, HAVING A PROBLEM ON ONE SOLAR PANEL CAN DRAG DOWN
THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ENTIRE SOLAR ARRAY. MICRO-INVERTERS, SUCH AS THE ONES IN
SUNPOWERS EQUINOX SOLAR SYSTEM, MAKE THIS A NON-ISSUE. IF ONE SOLAR PANEL HAS NO ISSUE,
THE REST OF SOLAR ARRAY STILL PERFORMS EFFICIENTLY.
 HERES AN EXAMPLE OF HOW A HOME SOLAR ENERGY INSTALLATION WORKS. FIRST SUNLIGHT HITS A
SOLAR PANEL ON THE ROOF. THE PANELS CONVERT THE ENERGY TO DC CURRENT, WHICH FLOWS TO
AN INVERTER . THE INVERTER CONVERTS THE ELECTRICITY FROM DC TO AC CURRENT WHICH YOU
CAN THEN USE TO POWERYOUR HOME.
 HOWEVER WHAT HAPPENS IF YOU ARE NOT HOME TO USE THE ELECTRICITY YOUR SOLAR PANELS
GENERATING ELECTRICITY EVERY SUNNY DAY? AND WHAT HAPPENS AT NIGHT WHEN YOUR SOLAR
SYSTEM IS NOT GENERATING POWER IN REAL TIME? DONT WORRY , YOU STILL BENEFIT THROUGH A
SYSTEM CALLED NET METERING
 A TYPICAL GRID-TIED PV SYSTEM, DURTING PEAK DAYLIGHT HOURS , FREQUENTLY PRODUCES MORE
THAN ONE CUSTOMER NEEDS, SO THAT EXCESS ENERGY IS FEDBACK INTO THE GRIDFOR USE ELSE
WHERE. THE CUSTOMER GETS CREDIT FOR THE EXCESS ENERGY PRODUCED, AND CAN USE THE
CREDIT TO DRAW FROM THE CONVENTIONAL GRID AT NIGHT OR ON CLOUDY DAYS. A NET METER
RECORDS THE ENERGY SENT COMPARED TO THE ENERGY RECIEVED FROM THE GRID.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE  COST


 REDUCES ELECTRICITY  WEATHER DEPENDENT
 DIVERSE APPLICATIONS  SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE IN EXPENSIVE
 LOW MAINTENANCE COSTS  USES A LOT OF SPACE
 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT  ASSOCIATED WITH POLLUTION
 AMONG ALL THE BENEFITS OF SOLAR PANELS, THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS THAT SOLAR ENERGY
IS A TRULY A RENEWABLE RESOURCE. IT CAN BE HARNESSED IN ALL AREAS OF THE WORLD AND IS
AVAILABLE IN EVERY DAY. WE CAN NOT RUN OUT OF SOLAR ENERGY. UNLIKE SOME OF THE OTHERS
OF ENERGY. SOLAR ENERGY WILL BE ACESSIBLE AS LONG AS WE HAVE THE SUN, THEREFORE
SUNLIGHT WILL BE AVAILABLE TO US FOR AT LEAST 5 BILLION YEARS WHEN ACCORDING TO
SCIENTISTS IS THE SUN IS GOING TO DIE.
 A WIND TURBINE OR ALTERNATIVELY REFFERED TOO AS A WIND ENERGY CONVERTER, IS A DEVICE
THAT CONVERTS THE WINDS KINETIC ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY.
 WIND TURBINES ARE MANUFACTURED IN AWIDE RANGE OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL AXIS. THE
SMALLEST TURBINES ARE USED FOR APPLICATIONS SUCH AS BATTERY CHARGING FOR AUXILLARY
POWER FOR BOATS OR CARAVANS OR TO POWER TRAFFIC WARNING SIGNS.
 LARGER TURBINES, KNOWN AS WIND FARMS, ARE BECOMING AN INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT SOURCE
FOR INTERMITTENT RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ARE USED BY MANY COUNTRIES AS A PART OF
RELIANCE ON FOSSIL FUELS. ONE ASSESSMENT CLAIMED THAT, AS OF 2009, WIND HAD THE “LOWEST
RELATIVE GREEN HOUSE GAS EMMISSIONS, AND...THE MOST FAVOURABLE SOCIAL IMPACTS”
COMPARED TO PHOTHVOLTAIC,HYDRO,GEOTHERMAL,COAL,AND GAS.
 HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY GENERATING WIND TURBINE:-
 WIND TURBINE MODEL WAS FIRST SEEN AT ALEXANDER TIMES(10AD-70AD)
 FIRST KNOWN PRACTICAL WIND POWER PLANTS WERE BUILT IN SISTAN, AN EASTERN PROVINCE OF
PERSIA
 THE FIRT ELECTRICITY-GENERATING WIND TURBINES WAS A BATTERY CHARGING INSTALLED IN JULY
1887BY SCOTTISH ACADEMIC “JAMES BLYTH” TO LIGHT HIS HOLIDAY HOME IN MARYKRIK, SCOTLAND
 SOME MONTHS LATER AMERICAN INVENTOR CHARLESF.BRUSH WAS ABLE TO BUILD FIRST
AUTOMATICALLY OPERATED WIND TURBINE AFTER CONSULTING LOCAL UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS
AND COLLEAGUES JACOB S.GIBBS AND BRINSELY COLEBERD AND SUCEESFULLY GETTING BLUE
PRINTS PEER REVIEWED FOR ELECTRICITY PRODUCED CLEVELAND OHIO. ALTHOUGH BLYTH TURBINE
WAS CONSIDERED UNECONOMICAL IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. ELECTRICITY GENERATION BY WIND
TURBINES WAS MORE COST EFFECTIVE IN COUNTRIES WITH WIDELY SCATTERED POPULATIONS.
 WIND POWER DENSITY(WPD) IS A QUANTITATIVE MEASURE OF WIND ENERGY AVAILABLE AT ANY
LOCATION. IT IS THE MEAN ANNUAL POWER AVAILABLE PER SQUARE METER OF SWEPT AREA OF A
TURBINE, AND IS CALCULATED FOR DIFFERENT HEIGHTS ABOVE GROUND. CALCULATION OF WIND
POWER DENSITY INCLUDES THE EFFECT OF WIND VELOCITY AND AIR DENSITY.
 WIND TURBINES ARE CLASSIFIED BY THE WIND SPEED THEY ARE DESIGNED FOR, FROM CLASSI TO
CLASSIII WITH A TO C REFERRING TO THE TURBULAN
 TYPES OF WIND TURBINES:-
 1. VAWT SAVONIUS(VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE)
 2.HAWT TOWERED(HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE)
 3.VAWT DARRIEUS
 WIND IS A FORM OF SOLAR ENERGY CAUSED BY A COMBINATION OF THREE CONCURRENT EVENTS:
 1. THE SUN UNEVENLY HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE
 2. IRREGULARITIES OF EARTHS SURFACE
 THE ROTATION OF EARTH
 WIND FLOWS PATTERNS AND SPEEDS VARY GREATLY ACROSS THE UNITED STATES AND
AREVMODIFIED BY BODIES OF WATER, VEGETATION, AND DIFFERENCES IN TERRAIN, HUMANS USE
THIS WIND FLOW, OR MOTION ENERGY, FOR MANY PURPOSES: SAILING, FLYING A KITE, AND EVEN
GENERATING ELECTRICITY.
 THE TERMS “WIND ENERGY” AND “WIND POWER” BOTH DESCRIBE THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE WIND
IS USED TO GENERATE MECHANICAL POWER OR ELECTRICITY. WIND TURBINES CONVERT THE KINETIC
ENERGY FROM THE WIND INTO MECHINICAL POWER. THIS MECHANICAL POWER CAN BE USED FOR
SPECIAL TASKS OR A GENERATOR CAN CONVERT THE MECHINICAL POWER INTO ELECTRICITY. WIND
TURBINES CONVERT THE KINETIC ENERGY FROM THE WIND INTO MECHANICAL POWER. THIS
MECHANICAL POWER CAN BE USED IN SPECIFIC TASKS SUCH AS GRINDING GRAIN AND PUMPING
WATER
OR A GENERATOR CAN CONVERT THIS MECHANICAL POWER IN TO ELECTRICITY.
 A WIND TURBINE TURNS ENERGY IN THE WIND INTO ELECTRICITY USING THE AREODYNAMIC FORCE
CREATED BY ROTOR BLADES, WHICH WORK SIMILARLY TO AN AIRPLANE WING OR HELICOPTER
ROTOR BLADE. WHEN THE WIND FLOWS FROM THE BLADE, THE AIR PRESSURE ON ONE SIDE OF THE
BLADE DECREASES. THE DIFFERENCE IN AIR PRESSURE ACROSS THE TO BLADES CREATES THE LIFT
AND DRAG. THE FORCE OF THE LIFT IS STRONGER THAN THE DRAG AND THIS CAUSES THE ROTOR TO
SPIN. THE ROTOR IS CONNECTED TO THE GENERATOR, EITHER DIRECTLY(IF ITS A DIRECT DRIVE
TURBINE) OR THROUGH A SHAFT AND SERIES OF GEARS(A GEAR BOX) THAT SPEED UP THE ROTATION
AND ALLOW FOR A PHYSICALLY SMALLER GENERATOR. THIS TRANSLATION OF AERODYNAMIC FORCE
TO ROTATION OF A GENERATOR CREATES ELECTRICITY.
 ANEMOMETER:-
 MEASURES THE WIND SPEED AND TRANSMITS WIND SPEED DATA TO THE CONTROLLER.
 BLADES:-
 LIFTS AND ROTATES WHEN WIND IS BLOWN OVER THEM , CAUSING THE ROTOR TO SPIN, MOST
TURBINES HAVE EITHER TWO OR THREE BLADES.
 BRAKE:-
 STOPS THE ROTOR MECHANICALLY, ELECTRICALLY, OR HYDRAULICALLY, IN EMERGENCIES.
 CONTROLLERS:-
 STARTS UP THE MACHINE AT WIND SPEEDS OF ABOUT 8 TO 16 MILES PER HOUR(MPH) AND SHUTS OFF
THE MACHINE AT ABOUT 55MPH. TURBINES DO NOT OPERATE AT WIND SPEEDS ABOVE ABOUT 55MPH
BECAUSE THEY MAY BE DAMAGED BY HIGH WINDS.
 GEAR BOX:-
 CONNECTS THE LOW-SPEED SHAFT TO THE HIGH SPEED SHAFT AND INCREASES THE ROTATIONAL
SPEEDS FROM ABOUT 30-60 ROTATIONS PER MINUTE(RPM), TO ABOUT 1000-1800 RPM; THIS IS
ROTATIONAL SPEED REQUIRED BY MOST GENERATORS TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY. THE GEAR BOX IS A
COSTLY AND HEAVY PART OF WIND TURBINE AND ENGINEERS ARE EXPLORING “DIRECT-DRIVE”
GENERATORS THAT OPERATE AT LOWER ROTATIONAL SPEEDS AND DONT NEED GEAR BOXES.
 GENERATOR:;
 PRODUCES 60-CYCLES AC ELECTRICITY; IT IS USUALLY AN OFF- THE-SHELF INDUCTION GENERATOR.
 HIGH SPEED SHAFT:-
 DRIVES THE GENERATOR
 LOW SPEED SHAFT:-
 TURNS THE LOW SPEED SHAFT AT ABOUT 30-60 RPM.
 NACELLE:-
 SITS ATOP THE TOWER AND CONTAINS THE GEAR BOX, LOW-HIGH SHAFTS, GENERATOR, CONTROLLER,
AND BRAKE. SOME NACELLES ARE LARGE ENOUGH FOR HELICOPTER TO LAND ON
 PITCH:-
 TURN OR PITCHES BLADES OUT OF THE WIND TO CONTROL THE ROTOR SPEED, AND TO KEEP THE
ROTOR FROM TURNING IN WINDS THAT ARE TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY
 ROTOR:-
 BLADES AND HUB TOGETHER FROM THE ROTOR.
 TOWER:-
 MADE FROM TUBULAR STEEL, CONCRETE, OR STEEL LATTICE. SUPPORTS THE STRUCTURE OF THE
TURBINE. BECAUSE WIND SPEED INCREASES WITH HEIGHT, TALLER TOWERS ENABLE TURBINES TO
CAPTURE MORE ENERGY AND GENERATE MORE ELECTRICITY.
 WIND DIRECTION:-
 DETERMINES THE DESIGN OF THE TURBINE. UPWIND TURBINES-LIKE THE ONE SHOWN HERE-FACE
INTO THE WIND WHILE DOWN WIND TURBINES FACE AWAY.
 WIND VANE:-
 MEASURES WIND DIRECTION AND COMMUNICATES WITH THE YAW DRIVE TO ORIENT THE TUIRBINE
PROPERLY WITH RESPECT TO THE WIND.
 YAW DRIVE:-
 ORIENTS UPWIND TURBINES TO KEEP THEM FACING THE WIND WHEN THE DIRECTION CHANGES.
DOWN WIND TURBINES DONT REQUIRE A YAW DRIVE BECAUSE WIND MANUALLY BLOWS THE ROTOR
AWAY FROM IT
 YAW MOTOR:-
 POWER THE YAW DRIVE.
 WIND TURBINES PRODUCE ELECTRICITY AT BETWEEN TWO AND SIXCENTS PER KILOWATTHOUR,
WHICH IS ONE OF THE LOWEST-PRICED RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES. AS TECHNOLOGY NEEDED FOR
WIND TURBINES CONTINUED TO IMPROVE, THE PRICES DECREASED AS WELL. IN ADDITION, THERE IS
CURRENTLY NO COMPETITIVE MARKET FOR WIND ENERGY, BECAUSE WIND IS FREELY AVAILABLE IN
NATURAL RESOURCE, MOST OF WHICH IS UNTAPPED. THE MAIN COST OF SMALL WIND TURBINES IS
THE PURCHASE AND INSTALLATION PROCESS, WHICH AVERAGES BETWEEN $48000-$65000 PER
INSTALLATION. THE ENERGY HARVESTED FROM THE TURBINE WILL OFFSET THE INSTALLATION COST,
AS WELL AS PROVIDE VIRTUALLY FREE ENERGY FOR YEARS.
 WIND TURBINES PROVIDEA CLEAN ENERGY SOURCE, USE LITTLE WATER, EMITTING NO GREEN HOUSE
GASES AND NO WASTE PRODUCTS. OVER 1,500 TONS OF CARBON DIOXIDE PER YEAR CAN BE
ELIMINATED BY USING A ONE-MEGA WATT TURBINE INSTEAD OF ONE MEGAWATT OF ENERGY FROM
FOSSIL FUEL.
 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF WIND POWER INCLUDES EFFECT ON WILD LIFE, BUT CAN BE MITIGATED
IF PROPER MONITORING AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES ARE IMPLEMENTED. THOUSANDS OF BIRDS,
INCLUDING RARE SPECIES, HAVE BEEN KILLED BY BLADES OF WIND TURBINES, THOUGH WIND
TURBINE CONTRIBUTE RELATIVELY INSIGNIFICANTLY TO ANTHROPOGENIC AVIAN MORTALITY. FOR
EVERY BIRD KILLED BY WIND TURBINE IN THE US NEARLY 5000,000 ARE KILLED BY EACH OF FERAL
CATS AND BUILDINGS. IN COMPARISON, CONVENTIONAL COAL FIRED GENERATORS CONTRIBUTES
SIGNIFICANTLY MORE BIRD MORTALITY, BY INCINERATION HEN CAUGHT IN UPDRAFTS OF SMOKE
STACKS AND BY POISONING WITH EMISSIONS BYPRODUCTS. FURTHER, MARINE LIFE IS AFFECTED BY
WATER INTAKES OF STEAM TURBINE COOLING TOWERS FOR NUCLEAR AND FOSSIL FUEL
GENERATORS, BY COAL DUST DEPOSITS IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS AND BY WATER ACIDIFICATION
FROM COMBUSTION MONOXIDES.
 WIND TURBINES CAN BE VERY LARGE, REACHING OVER 140M TALL AND WITH BLADES 55M LONG,
AND PEOPLE HAVE OFTEN COMPLAINED ABOUT THEIR VISUAL IMPACT.
 WHILE SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY GENERATORS DERIVE THEIR POWER FROM TWO DIFFERENT
SOURCES, THEY SHARE SOME SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE TWO SYSTEMS. EACH IS A FORM OF
RENEWABLE ENERGY, WHICH MEANS THAT THEY DO NOT RELY ON A FINITE SOURCE FOR FUEL SUCH
AS OIL OR NATURAL GAS. THE PROCESS IN WHICH THESE MECHANISMS GATHER AND STORE
ENERGYALSO SHOWS A SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE TWO. BOTH SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY GENERATES
UTILIZE A BATTERY SYSTEM IN WHICH THEY STORE GATHERED ENERGY. SUNLIGHT OR WIND POWERS
THE PANEL OR TURBINE, WHICH IS OFTEN CONVERTED IN TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY THAT IS STORED
WITH IN A BATTERY.
MAM KAE