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Application of Non-Directional Overcurrent

and Earthfault Protection


Non-Directional Overcurrent and Earth
Fault Protection
Overcurrent Protection
Purpose of Protection

 Detect abnormal conditions


 Isolate faulty part of the system
 Speed
 Fast operation to minimise damage and danger
 Discrimination
 Isolate only the faulty section
 Dependability / reliability
 Security / stability
 Cost of protection / against cost of potential hazards
Overcurrent Protection
Co-ordination

F1 F2
F3

 Co-ordinate protection so that relay nearest to


fault operates first
 Minimise system disruption due to the fault
Fuses
Overcurrent Protection
Fuses

 Simple
 Can provide very fast fault clearance
 <10ms for large current
 Limit fault energy

Arcing Time
Pre Arc Time
Prospective Fault Current

Total t
Operating
Time
Overcurrent Protection
Fuses - disadvantages

 Problematic co-ordination

Fuse A Fuse B

 IFA approx 2 x IFB


 Limited sensitivity to earth faults
 Single phasing
 Fixed characteristic
 Need replacing following fault clearance
Tripping Methods
Overcurrent Protection
Direct Acting AC Trip

51

Trip Coil

IF

 AC series trip
 common for electromechanical O/C relays
Overcurrent Protection
Direct Acting AC Trip

I F'

+
Sensitive
51 Trip
Coil
-

IF

 Capacitor discharge trip


 used with static relays where no secure DC
supply is available
Overcurrent Protection
DC Shunt Trip
IF
I F'

51

DC SHUNT
BATTERY TRIP COIL

 Requires secure DC auxiliary


 No trip if DC fails
Overcurrent Protection
Overcurrent Protection
Principles

 Operating Speed
 Instantaneous
 Time delayed
 Discrimination
 Current setting
 Time setting
 Current and time
 Cost
 Generally cheapest form of protection relay
Overcurrent Protection
Instantaneous Relays

B A

50 50
IF2 IF1

 Current settings chosen so that relay closest to


fault operates
 Problem
 Relies on there being a difference in fault level
between the two relay locations
 Cannot discriminate if IF1 = IF2
Overcurrent Protection
Definite (Independent) Time Relays

TIME

TOP

IS Applied Current
(Relay Current Setting)
Overcurrent Protection
Definite (Independent) Time Relays

51 51
0.9 sec 0.5 sec

 Operating time is independent of current


 Relay closest to fault has shortest operating time
 Problem
 Longest operating time is at the source where
fault level is highest
Overcurrent Protection
IDMT

TIME

IS Applied Current
(Relay Current Setting)

 Inverse Definite Minimum Time characteristic


Overcurrent Protection
Disc Type O/C Relays

 Current setting via plug bridge


 Time multiplier setting via disc
movement
 Single characteristic
 Consider 2 ph & EF or 3 ph
plus additional EF relay
Overcurrent Protection
Static Relay

 Electronic, multi characteristic


 Fine settings, wide range
 Integral instantaneous elements
Overcurrent Protection
Numerical Relay

I>1

I>2
Time
I>3

I>4

Current

 Multiple characteristics and stages


 Current settings in primary or secondary
values
 Additional protection elements
Co-ordination
Overcurrent Protection
Co-ordination Principle

 Relay closest to fault


must operate first
R1 R2  Other relays must have
IF1 adequate additional
operating time to
T prevent them operating
 Current setting chosen
to allow FLC
 Consider worst case
conditions, operating
IS2 IS1 Maximum I modes and current
Fault flows
Level
Overcurrent Protection
Co-ordination Example

E D C B A

10

E
Operating time (s)

1 D
C

0.1

0.01
Current (A) FLB FLC FLD
Overcurrent Protection
IEC Characteristics

1000

100
 SI t = 0.14

Operating Time (s)


(I0.02 -1)
 VI t = 13.5 10
LTI
(I2 -1)
SI

 EI t = 80 1
(I2 -1) VI

 LTI t = 120 EI

0.1
(I - 1) 1 10 100
Current (Multiples of Is)
Overcurrent Protection
Operating Time Setting - Terms Used

 Relay operating times can be 1000


calculated using relay
characteristic charts
100

Operating Time (s)


 Published characteristcs are
drawn against a multiple of
10
current setting or Plug Setting
Multiplier
 Therefore characteristics can be 1

used for any application


regardless of actual relay current 0.1
setting 1 10 100
Current (Multiples of Is)
 e.g at 10x setting (or PSM of 10)
SI curve op time is 3s
Overcurrent Protection
Current Setting

 Set just above full load current


 allow 10% tolerance
 Allow relay to reset if fault is cleared by
downstream device
 consider pickup/drop off ratio (reset ratio)
 relay must fully reset with full load current
flowing
 PU/DO for static/numerical = 95%
 PU/DO for EM relay = 90%

 e.g for numerical relay, Is = 1.1 x IFL/0.95


Overcurrent Protection
Current Setting

 Current grading
 ensure that if upstream relay has started
downstream relay has also started

R1 R2 IF1

 Set upstream device current setting greater than


downstream relay
e.g. IsR1 = 1.1 x IsR2
Overcurrent Protection
Grading Margin

 Operating time difference between two devices to


ensure that downstream device will clear fault before
upstream device trips
 Must include
 breaker opening time
 allowance for errors GRADING
MARGIN
 relay overshoot time
 safety margin
Overcurrent Protection
Grading Margin - between relays

R1 R2

 Traditional
 breaker op time - 0.1
 relay overshoot - 0.05
 allow. For errors - 0.15
 safety margin - 0.1
 Total 0.4s
 Calculate using formula
Overcurrent Protection
Grading Margin - between relays

 Formula
 t’ = (2Er + Ect) t/100 + tcb + to + ts
 Er = relay timing error
 Ect = CT measurement error
 t = op time of downstream relay
 tcb = CB interupting time
 to = relay overshoot time
 ts = safety margin
 Op time of Downstream Relay t = 0.5s
 0.375s margin for EM relay, oil CB
 0.24s margin for static relay, vacuum CB
Overcurrent Protection
Grading Margin - relay with fuse

 Grading Margin = 0.4Tf + 0.15s over whole characteristic


 Assume fuse minimum operating time = 0.01s
 Use EI or VI curve to grade with fuse
 Current setting of relay should be 3-4 x rating of fuse to
ensure co-ordination
Overcurrent Protection
Grading Margin - relay with upstream fuse

Tf
Tr

I FMAX

 1.175Tr + 0.1 + 0.1 = 0.6Tf


Allowance for CT CB Safety margin Allowance for fuse
and relay error error (fast)

or
 Tf = 2Tr + 0.33s
Overcurrent Protection
Time Multiplier Setting

100

 Used to adjust the operating


time of an inverse

Operating Time (s)


10
characteristic
 Not a time setting but a
multiplier
1
 Calculate TMS to give
desired operating time in
accordance with the grading
margin 0.1
1 10 100
Current (Multiples of Is)
Overcurrent Protection
Time Multiplier Setting - Calculation

 Calculate relay operating time required, Treq


 consider grading margin
 fault level
 Calculate op time of inverse characteristic
with TMS = 1, T1

 TMS = Treq /T1


Overcurrent Protection
Co-ordination - Procedure

 Calculate required operating current


 Calculate required grading margin
 Calculate required operating time
 Select characteristic
 Calculate required TMS
 Draw characteristic, check grading over whole
curve

Grading curves should be drawn to a common


voltage base to aid comparison
Overcurrent Protection
Co-ordination Example

200/5 100/5

I
FMAX
= 1400 Amp
B A
Is = 5 Amp Is = 5 Amp; TMS = 0.05, SI

 Grade relay B with relay A


 Co-ordinate at max fault level seen by both relays =
1400A
 Assume grading margin of 0.4s
Overcurrent Protection
Co-ordination Example

200/5 100/5

I
FMAX
= 1400 Amp
B A
Is = 5 Amp Is = 5 Amp; TMS = 0.05, SI

 Relay B is set to 200A primary, 5A secondary


 Relay A set to 100A  If (1400A) = PSM of 14
relay A OP time = t = 0.14 x TMS = 0.14 x 0.05 = 0.13
(I0.02 -1) (140.02 -1)
 Relay B Op time = 0.13 + grading margin = 0.13 + 0.4 = 0.53s
 Relay A uses SI curve so relay B should also use SI curve
Overcurrent Protection
Co-ordination Example
200/5 100/5

I FMAX
= 1400 Amp
B A
Is = 5 Amp Is = 5 Amp; TMS = 0.05, SI

 Relay B Op time = 0.13 + grading margin = 0.13 + 0.4 = 0.53s


 Relay A uses SI curve so relay B should also use SI curve
 Relay B set to 200A  If (1400A) = PSM of 7
relay B OP time TMS = 1 = 0.14 x TMS = 0.14 = 3.52s
(I0.02 -1) (70.02 -1)
 Required TMS = Required Op time = 0.53 = 0.15
Op time TMS=1 3.52
 Set relay B to 200A, TMS = 0.15, SI
Overcurrent Protection
LV Protection Co-ordination

11kV

MCGG 4 CB 4
350MVA
2 x 1.5MVA
11kV/433V
5.1%
CTZ61 3 ACB CTZ61 3 (Open)
2
ACB
1 MCCB
1 Relay 1
2 Relay 2 27MVA
3 Relay 3
4 Relay 4 Fuse F K
F Fuse
Load 20MVA
ZA2118B
Overcurrent Protection
LV Protection Co-ordination

1000S

100S
TX damage

10S

Very
1.0S inverse

0.1S

0.01S
0. 1kA 10kA 1000kA
ZA2119
Overcurrent Protection
LV Protection Co-ordination

11kV

KCGG 142 4 CB 4
350MVA
2 x 1.5MVA
11kV/433V
5.1%
KCEG 142 3 ACB 3 (Open)
2
ACB
1 MCCB
1 Relay 1
2 Relay 2 27MVA
3 Relay 3
4 Relay 4 Fuse F K
F Fuse
Load 20MVA
ZA2120C
Overcurrent Protection
LV Protection Co-ordination

1000S
Long time
inverse
100S
TX damage

10S

1.0S

0.1S

0.01S
0. 1kA 10kA 1000kA
ZA2121
Overcurrent Protection
Blocked OC Schemes

Graded
protection
R3

R2
Block t >
Blocked
IF2 protection
R1 I > Start

IF1
M (Transient backfeed ?)
ZA2135
Use of High Sets
Overcurrent Protection
Instantaneous Protection

 Fast clearance of faults


 ensure good operation factor, If >> Is (5 x ?)
 Current setting must be co-ordinated to prevent
overtripping
 Used to provide fast tripping on HV side of transformers
 Used on feeders with Auto Reclose, prevents transient
faults becoming permanent
 AR ensures healthy feeders are re-energised
 Consider operation due to DC offset - transient
overreach
Overcurrent Protection
Instantaneous OC on Transformer Feeders

HV2 HV1 LV
 Set HV inst 130% IfLV
 Stable for inrush
HV2
HV1  No operation for LV fault
TIME

LV
 Fast operation for HV
fault
 Reduces op times
required of upstream
CURRENT
IF(LV) IF(HV) relays
1.3IF(LV)
Earthfault Protection
Overcurrent Protection
Earth Fault Protection

 Earth fault current may be limited


 Sensitivity and speed requirements may not be met by
overcurrent relays
 Use dedicated EF protection relays
 Connect to measure residual (zero sequence) current
 Can be set to values less than full load current
 Co-ordinate as for OC elements
 May not be possible to provide co-ordination with
fuses
Overcurrent Protection
Earth Fault Relay Connection - 3 Wire System

E/F OC OC OC E/F OC OC

 Combined with OC relays  Economise using 2x OC


relays
Overcurrent Protection
Earth Fault Relay Connection - 4 Wire System

E/F OC OC OC E/F OC OC OC

 EF relay setting must be  Independent of neutral


greater than normal current but must use 3 OC
neutral current relays for phase to neutral
faults
Overcurrent Protection
Earth Fault Relays Current Setting

 Solid earth
 Resistance earth
 30% Ifull load
adequate  setting w.r.t earth fault
level
 special considerations
for impedance earthing
- directional?
Overcurrent Protection
Sensitive Earth Fault Relays

A
B
C

 Settings down to
0.2% possible
E/F
 Isolated/high
impedance earth networks
 For low settings cannot use residual connection, use
dedicated CT
 Advisable to use core balance CT
 CT ratio related to earth fault current not line current
 Relays tuned to system frequency to reject 3rd
harmonic
Overcurrent Protection
Core Balance CT Connections

NO OPERATION OPERATION

 Need to take care with core


balance CT and armoured CABLE GLAND
cables
CABLE
 Sheath acts as earth return BOX
path
 Must account for earth current E/F
path in connections - insulate CABLE GLAND/SHEATH
cable gland EARTH CONNECTION