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GLOBALIZATION

CONTENT

Definition
Origin
Characteristics
Features
Concept
Types
Negative and positive Impacts
GLOBALIZATION

• Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the


people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process
driven by international trade and investment and aided by
information technology.This process has effects on the environment,
on culture, on political systems, on economic development and
prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the
world.
ORIGIN

The origin of the globalization can be looked after the end of the cold war, when
nationalism re-emerged as a challenge to world order.
 Many countries had been disintegrated as a result of ethnic & religious conflicts, which
have been interpreted as a clash of different types of nationalism.
 The former Soviet Union & Yugoslavia are two such examples. Even the situation in the
Balkans is often looked upon as an example of national disintegration.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALIZATION

Globalization is basically a ‘Mindset’:


Usually, Globalization is seen as another economic theory to enhance business & trade.
 A mindset that is broader & open to receive all ideas; that takes the whole globe as an
area of operation.
Globalization means “Interdependence”:
We have all grown reading history wherein either a country is independent or a slave of
another country.
With the advent of Globalization, it has been understood that no country can be said to
be totally independent, not needing anything from any other country.
Hence, a culture of interdependence has been established between nations.
GLOBALIZATION MEANS “CARING & SHARING”:

The world today is more united and concerned about common problems being faced by
the people- be it global warming, terrorism, or malnutrition etc. natural disasters faced or
atrocities encountered at any part of the world attract immediate attention all over.
Globalization puts Technology in Service of Mankind:
The world would not have shrunk into a small global village without the support of
technological innovations like Computers, Internet, Telecommunication, E-Commerce etc.
Thus, technology has proved to be the major source of the concept of Globalization, and
for bringing people nearer.
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GLOBALIZATION IS INEVITABLE & IRREVERSIBLE:

There have been attempts by fundamentalist forces all


over the world to oppose and stop the process of
Globalization over past quarter century.
It is rightly said, “You cannot stop the advent of an idea
whose time has come”. Globalization is one such idea.
KEY FEATURES OF GLOBALIZATION:
• All societies have become interconnected world-globalization-map
• International economic integration with global production
• Transnational media systems creating a global culture, global consumerism to create a global village
Global tourism
• Media imperialism
• Transnational corporations that drive a global economy
SEVERAL DIMENSIONS OF GLOBALIZATION
• Increased and Active Social, Economic and Cultural Linkages among the people. Globalization has social,
economic, political cultural and technological dimensions. It involves all round inter-linkages among all the
people of the world.
• Free flow of knowledge, technology goods services and people across all societies is it key feature.
• It attempts at making geographical borders soft permitting all the people to develop their relations and links.
• Globalization accepts and advocates the value of free world, free trade, freedom of access to world markets
and a free flow of investments across borders.
• It stands for integration and democratization of the world’s culture, economy and infrastructure through global
investments.
CONCEPT OF GLOBALIZATION
• The concept of globalization has challenged the study of International Relations from every aspect of the
International Relations theory. Globalization has undermined everything philosophers have contributed to the
theory of international relations.
• The International Relations theory says that the global community consists of many states and few actors;
however globalization makes it so that global community feels more like one state and many actors. These two
controversial theories can be argue because many see globalization as a myth, even though there is proof
around us that lets us know that globalization is much so taking place in our everyday life.
• The shifting of the states from an international system was not anything planned but the world just began to
come together in term of ideas, communications, trade and other areas. The international Relations theory
separates the actors by the realist, liberalist and actors. Through globalization the global world has become in
synch with one another and states are linking together to make this world work.
TYPES OF GLOBALIZATION

Political globalization
Political globalization refers to the amount of political co-operation that exists between
different countries. These ties in with the belief that “umbrella” global organizations are better
placed than individual states to prevent conflict. The League of Nations established after
WW1 was certainly one of the pioneers in this. Since then, global organization such as the
World Trade Organization (WTO), United Nations (UN), and more regional organizations
such as the EU have helped to increase the degree of political globalization.
Countries are attempting to adopt similar political policies and styles of government in order
to facilitate other forms of globalization.E.g. Move to secular governments, free trade
agreements, etc.
SOCIAL GLOBALIZATION

Social globalization refers to the sharing of ideas and information between and through
different countries.
In today’s world, the Internet and social media is at the heart of this. Good examples of
social globalization could include internationally popular films, books and TV series. The
Harry Potter/ Twilight films and books have been successful all over the world, making
the characters featured globally recognizable. However, this cultural flow tends to flow
from the centre (i.e. from developed countries such as the USA to less developed
countries). Social globalization is often criticized for eroding cultural differences.
ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

Economic globalization refers to the interconnectedness of economies through trade and


the exchange of resources. Effectively, therefore, no national economy really operates in
isolation, which means national economies influence each other.
Economic globalization also means that there is a two-way structure for technologies and
resources. For example countries like the USA will sell their technologies to countries,
which lack these, and natural resources from developing countries are sold to the
developed countries that need them. A worldwide economic system that permits easy
movement of goods, production, capital, and resources (free trade facilitates this)
Example: NAFTA, EU, Multinational corporations
CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION

The globalization of food is one of the most obvious examples of cultural


globalization – food consumption is an important aspect of culture and
most societies around the world have diets that are unique to them,
however the cultural globalization of food has been promoted by fast food
giants such as McDonald’s, Coca-Cola and Starbucks. The spread of these
global food corporations has arguably led to the decline of local diets and
eating traditions.
FINANCIAL GLOBALIZATION

Advances in telecommunications are expanding foreign markets without having physical


branches there. Universalization of Banking -Growing competition in financial markets
and increasing irrelevance of national borders and increasingly complex relationships
among
Interconnection of the world
Financial systems e.g. stock markets
More of a connection between large cities than of nations
Example: What happens in Asian markets affects the North American markets.
IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION

• 1. Cultural impacts of globalization


• The emergence of an Americanized World is something that we saw with the growth of
globalization. A converging consumer behavior and tastes with the American model as a
blueprint for global culture can be traced as one of the major impact of globalization on
culture. The emergence of English as the dominant language in business and academic works is
another example of how one culture can gain dominance in the world with power
• There are positive aspects for cultural globalization that will foster diversity when there is an
interaction between boundaries leads to mixing of culture which results in pluralization
SOCIAL IMPACTS
• The social dimension of globalization refers to the impact of globalization on the life and work of people,
families and societies. There are more social aspects for globalization beyond the employment, working
dimensions, income, social protection etc. the idea of social justice is been now been a distant dream to be
accomplished. The increased political and economic movement of globalization has left the major aspect of
society, i.e. People. The idea of social justice aims at creating a society based on the idea of equality and
solidarity, the values of human rights, the dignity of every human being.

 Political impact of globalization

• One of the major impacts of political globalization is that it reduces the importance of nation-states. Many have
organized themselves into trade blocs. Emergence of multinational institutions such as the European Union, the
WTO, the G8, and The International Criminal Court etc. replaced or extended the national functions to
facilitate international agreement.
NEGATIVE IMPACTS GLOBALIZATION

Globalization operates mostly in the interests of the richest countries

• Globalization operates mostly in the interests of the richest


countries, which continue to dominate world trade at the
expense of developing countries. The role of LEDCs in the
world market is mostly to provide the North and West with
cheap Labour and raw materials.
ABSENCE OF STRICTLY ENFORCED INTERNATIONAL LAWS

 An absence of strictly enforced international laws means that TNCs Transnational


corporations may operate in LEDCs in a way that would not be allowed in an MEDC more
economically developed country. They may pollute the environment, run risks with safety or
impose poor working conditions and low wages on local workers.
 Globalization as a threat to the world's cultural diversity
Globalization is viewed by many as a threat to the world's cultural diversity. It is feared it
might drown out local economies, traditions and languages and simply re-cast the whole
world in the mold of the capitalist North and West. An example of this is that a Hollywood
film is far more likely to be successful worldwide than one made in India or China, which also
have thriving film industries.
LOCAL CULTURES HAVE ALSO BEEN AFFECTED BY GLOBALIZATION

Local cultures have also been affected by globalization. Traditional customs


and rituals are being replaced with the popular culture of the United
States and the United Kingdom
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