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Video Display Devices

Cathode Ray Tube

CRT Explained
• At any greater pressure, collisions of electrons with air molecules would scatter the electron beam
• The cathode, at the left end in the figure, is raised to a high temperature by the heater, and electrons
evaporate from the surface of the cathode.
• The accelerating anode, with a small hole at its center, is maintained at a high positive potential
relative to the cathode.
• This potential difference gives rise to an electric field directed from right to left in the region between
the accelerating anode and the cathode.
• Electrons passing through the hole in the anode form a narrow beam and travel with constant
horizontal velocity from the anode to the fluorescent screen. The area where the electrons strike, the
screen glows brightly.
• The control grid regulates the number of electrons that reach the anode and hence the brightness of
the spot on the screen.
• The focusing anode ensures that electrons leaving the cathode in slightly different directions are
focused down to a narrow beam and all arrive at the same spot on the screen.
• The beam of electrons passes between two pairs of deflecting plates.
• An electric field between the first pair of plates deflects the electrons horizontally, and an electric
field between the second pair deflects them vertically.
• If no deflecting fields are present, the electrons travel in a straight line from the hole in the
accelerating anode to the center of the screen, where they produce a bright spot.
Associated Terms
• Persistence: Determined by the duration for which a kind of
phosphor emits light

• Resolution: The maximum number of points that can be

displayed without overlap on a CRT.

• Aspect ratio: The ratio of vertical points to horizontal points

necessary to produce equal-length lines in both directions of
the screen
– E.g. Aspect ratio = ¾ means that a vertical line plotted with three points
has the same length as a horizontal line plotted with four points

• Refresh CRT: A method used to redraw the picture repeatedly

as light fades rapidly and the picture need to be maintained on
the screen
Color CRT Monitors
Color CRT Monitors

• A CRT monitor displays color pictures by using a

combination of phosphors that emit different color lights.

• Types
1.Beam Penetration
2.Shadow Masking
Beam Penetration Explained

• Used in random scan monitors

• Two layers of phosphor (Usually red & Green)
• Displayed color depends upon how far the electron beam
penetrates into the phosphor layers
• Slow electrons - excites the outer layer only (Red)
• Fast electrons - excites the inner layer (Green)
• Intermediate beam speeds - Combination of red and green
• Four colors can be displayed: red, green, orange & yellow
• Inexpensive
• Speed of electron and color is controlled by: Beam
acceleration voltage
• Quality of picture is not good
Shadow Masking
Shadow Masking
Shadow Mask Method
Delta Method:

In-line Method:
Shadow Mask Method
The delta-delta method:
Shadow Mask Method
The in-line method:
Shadow Masking Explained

• Used in raster-scan systems.

• Produce a wider range of colors.
• CRT has three phosphor color dots at each pixel position (One
each for red, green & blue).
• Three electron guns, one for each color dot.
• A shadow mask just behind the phosphor coated screen.
• Three electron beams are deflected and focused as a group onto
the shadow mask.
• When the three beams pass through a hole in the shadow-mask,
activate a dot-triangle and a colour spot is displayed.
• Each beam can activate only its corresponding dot.
• Colour variations can be achieved by varying the intensity level of
the three beams.
Beam Penetration Vs Shadow Masking

Sl.No Beam Penetration Shadow Masking

1 Used with random scan monitors. Used in raster scan monitors.

2 Only three colors are available Colors depends on the type of the
red, green, blue. ray.
3 Colors depends on the speed of Shadow mask is used.
the beam.

4 Quality of picture is not so good. Millions of the colors are available.

5 If the speed of reading is high, There is no speed criteria.

then only red color is produced.
6 Not expensive. It is expensive in the nature.
DVST Display
DVST Display
DVST Display Explained
• It stores the picture information as a charge distribution behind the
phosphor-coated screen.
• Two electron guns are used
– Primary gun: used to store the picture pattern
– Flood gun: used to maintain the picture display
• Primary gun produces high speed electrons which strike on the
storage mesh to draw the picture pattern.
• Electrons are knocked out of the storage grid resulting in net
positive charge.
• The knocked out electrons move towards the collector.
• The net positive charge on the storage grid is the picture pattern.
• The electrons from the flood gun are attracted towards the positive
charged areas of the storage grid.
DVST Display

Advantages Disadvantages
No refreshing is needed Ordinarily do not display colors
Complex pictures can be Available with single level of
displayed with high resolution intensity
It has a flat screen Performance is inferior to the
refresh CRT
Selected parts of a picture cannot
be erased
Flat Panel Displays
Flat Panel Displays
• A class of video devices that have reduce volume and
weight compared to a CRT.

• A significant feature of flat panel displays is that they

are thinner than CRTs.

Current uses for flat panel displays:

• Small TV monitors
• Calculators
• Pocket video games
• Laptop computers
• Advertisement boars in elevators
Flat Panel Displays
Flat panel displays:
• Emissive or Emitters Displays

• Non-emissive or Non-emitters
Emissive (or Emitters) Displays
• Emissive displays convert
electrical energy into light.

• Examples: Plasma panel, thin-

film electroluminescent displays,
Light-Emitting Diodes (LED)
and flat CRT.
Non-Emissive (or Non-Emitters) Displays

• Use optical effects to convert

sunlight or light from some other
source into graphics pattern.

• Example: Liquid-Crystal Device

Flat CRT
• Electron beams are accelerated parallel
to the screen, then deflected 90º to the
Plasma Panel
Plasma Panel
• A layer of gas (usually neon) is
sandwiched between two glass
Plasma Panel
• By applying high voltage to a pair of horizontal and
vertical conductors, a small section of the gas (tiny
neon bulb) at the intersection of the conductors break
down into glowing plasma of electrons and ions.
Thin Film
Thin Film Electroluminescent
• The region between the glass plates is filled
with a phosphor, such as zinc sulfide doped
with manganese.
Light Emitting Diode
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
• A matrix of diodes is arranged to form the pixel
positions in the display, and picture definition is
stored in a refresh buffer.

• Information is read from the refreshed buffer and

converted to voltage levels that are applied to the
diodes to produce the light patterns in the display.
Liquid Crystal Displays
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
• Used in small systems, such as calculators, laptop

• Produce a picture by passing polarized light (from

the surrounding or from an internal light source)
through a liquid-crystal material that can be aligned
to either block or transmit the light.
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

• Liquid crystal: These

compounds have a crystalline
arrangement of molecules, yet
they flow like a liquid.
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
• Two glass plates, each containing a light polarizer at
right angles to the other plate, sandwich the liquid
crystal materials.
• Rows of horizontal transparent conductor & columns
of vertical conductors (put into glass plates)
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

• Polarized light passing through the material is

twisted so that it will pass through the
opposite polarizer.

• The light is then reflected back t the viewer.

Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
• To turn off the pixel, we apply a voltage to the
two intersecting conductor to align the
molecules so that the light is not twisted.
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

On State

Off State