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# Studies in bubble formation-IV : Bubble formation at porous discs

## Rajesh Kumar Bhagat

Overview
§ Introduction
§
§ Mathematical model
§
§ Results summary
§
§ Conclusions

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Objective and motivation
§ To study the bubble formation from porous disk
and predict a model which can explain the
physics of problem from first principle.
§
§ There was no paper to explain the effect of
surface tension and viscosity, so address that
problem.

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phenomena of bubble
formation

§
§

§
§

## A. Ohnuki et al., Development of Multidimensional Two-Fluid Model Code ACE-3D for

Evaluation of Constitutive Equations, JJAERI-Data/Code 96-033 (1996).

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Mathematical model for the process
§Force balance on bubble
Inertial force = buoyancy force – viscous force –
force due to surface tension

## Expansion Detachment stage Condition for Detachment

stage

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Assumptions for the model

## §Porous disc is made of large number of pores of uniform

diameter and length having same resistance.
§Number of operative sites is equal to number of bubble
simultaneously on the disk which is only a fraction of total
number of sites.
§Effective pores may be made of number of pores but in this
analysis single pore is considered and flow through a single
pore is considered.
§Bubble arrange themselves in hexagonal close packed
manner.
§
§
Flow rate
increase

Effective sites
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Mathematical model
§Number of bubble by considering hexagonal close packing

………………
(1)

…………………
…(2)

## Hexagonal close packing of

bubble

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Mathematical model for expansion stage

……………………………
…(3)

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Mathematical model for detachment stage
…………
(IV)

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Verification of model

Experimental setup

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Range of variable covered during investigation

variable range
viscosity 1- 604cP
Surface tension 22.8-71.8 dyn/Cm
Density 0.792-1.255 g/Cm3
Flow rate of air 10-220 Cm3/sec
Pore diameter 45-110μ
Superficial velocity 4.389-60.94Cm/sec

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Results and discussion
Effect of surface tension, viscosity and pore diameter
Bubble volume , Cm 3

## Flow per site , Cm 3 /sec Indian Institute of

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Results and discussion
Effect of surface tension,viscosity and pore diameter
Bubble volume , Cm 3

## Flow rate per site , Cm 3 /sec Indian Institute of

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Results and discussion
Comparison between bubble volume
Theoretical bubble volume Cm 3

## Bubble volume experimental Cm 3 Indian Institute of

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Results and discussion
Comparison of number of sites
Number of sites calculated

## Number of sites experimental

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Conclusions
§With increase in pore diameter, surface tension, and
viscosity, bubble volume is increasing at low flow
Rate, but after a certain flow rate these factors are not
Increasing the bubble volume.

## §With this model, there was possibility for the explanation

of bubbles in fluidized bed and author was working in that area.

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Thank you
Results and discussion

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Model for expansion stage

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Model for expansion stage

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Model for detachment stage

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Model for detachment stage

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