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# ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES

SMA 3033
SEMESTER 2 2017/2018

## CHAPTER 1 : GROUPS & SUBGROUPS

BY:
DR ROHAIDAH HJ MASRI

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 1

CHAPTER 1 : PRELIMINARIES

## • Algebra provides a generalization of arithmetic by using symbols,

usually letters, to represent numbers.

2+3=3+2

## • This arithmetic statement can be generalized using algebra to

x+y=y+x
where x and y can be any number.

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 2

1.1 PRELIMINARIES

## Algebra Abstract Algebra

• In algebra, numbers are often • sometimes also called modern
denoted by symbols (such as a, algebra, in which algebraic
x, or y). structures such as groups, rings
and fields are axiomatically defined
and investigated.
• Linear algebra, in which the
specific properties of vector spaces
are studied (including) matrices.
• allows the general formulation • extends the familiar concepts found
of arithmetical laws (such as a + in elementary algebra and
b = b + a for all a and b). arithmetic of numbers to more
• the study of how to solve these : general concepts.
for instance, "Find a number x Eg.
such that 3x + 1 = 10" or going a 1. All collections of the familiar types
bit further "Find a number x of numbers are sets.
such that ax+b=c" 2. The notion of addition (+) is
abstracted to give a binary operation,
∗ say.
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1.2 LOGIC & PROOF

## Logic is the study of reasoning.

Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms
are valid, and which are fallacies.
give general
conclusions from
Two parts of logic : - Inductive reasoning specific examples

- Deductive reasoning
Give logical
conclusions from
definitions and
axioms

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 4

1.2 LOGIC & PROOF (Cont.)

## • In mathematics, a proof is a convincing demonstration that some

mathematical statement is necessarily true.

## • A proof must demonstrate that a statement is true in all cases,

without a single exception.

• Some terms:
Conjecture - An unproved proposition that is believed to be
true.
Theorem - The statement that is proved.
Lemma - The statement which is used as a stepping stone in
the proof of another theorem.

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 5

1.2 LOGIC & PROOF (Cont.)

Methods of proof

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1.2 LOGIC & PROOF (Cont.)

## Direct Proof Mathematics Induction

Example: Example:
(To prove the sum of two even The principle of mathematical
integers is always even) induction states that:
Let N = { 1, 2, 3, 4, ... } be the set of
Consider two even integers x and y. natural numbers and P(n) be a
Since they are even, then, mathematical statement involving the
x=2a and y=2b for integers a and b. natural number n belonging to N
Then such that
the sum x + y = 2a + 2b = 2(a + b). (i) P(1) is true, i.e., P(n) is true for n =
From this it is clear x+y has 2 as a 1
factor and therefore is even, (ii) P(n + 1) is true whenever P(n) is
so the sum of any two even integers is true, i.e., P(n) is true implies that
even.  P(n + 1) is true.
Then P(n) is true for all natural
numbers n.

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 7

Example:

Prove that sum of an even number and an odd number is always odd.

## Let x is an even number & Let x is an even number &

y is an odd number. y is an odd number.
Then, and let the sum of of x & y is even.
x = 2m mZ
y = 2n + 1 nZ Then,
Next, x + y = 2k for some kZ
To determine the sum of x & y; Hence
x+y x & y must be even.
= 2m + (2n + 1) This is contradict with the
= 2(m + n) + 1, where assumption that y is odd number.
Then, (m + n)Z
x + y is odd  Therefore, the sum of even and odd
numbers is odd. 

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 8

Incorrect proof :

Let x =2 , y = 3
Then,
x + y = 2 + 3 = 5.
Then,

x + y is odd. X

Note : This is not true for all cases!!! (except for counterexample)

## Given a statement x , P(x) . To disprove this statement:

 need only to find one value, say c, such that P(c) is false
 The value c is called a counterexample to the conjecture.

1.3 SETS

## Set - A well-defined collection of objects.

Well defined
Eg. If S is a set & b
is some object, then
either b definitely
Element in S or definitely
Empty Set Subset
Eg. aG not in S.
 -Proper
- a is an element of
-improper
set G

1.3 SETS (Cont.)
Example 1

## {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} = { x | x is an odd positive integer number  10 }

= { 2x – 1 | x = 1, 2 , 3, 4 , 5}

Example 2

Let S = { a, b, c}.
This set S has a total of eight subsets: 2n
, {a}, {b}, {c}, {a,b}, {a,c}, {b,c}, {a,b,c}

Example 3

Decide whether the object described is indeed a set (is well defined).
Not well
i. {nZ+ | n is a large number } defined
ii. { n Z | n2 < 0 } Well
defined
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1.4 RELATIONS

## Let A & B be sets. The set A x B = {(a, b) | a A bB }

is the Cartesian product of A & B.

Example 4

## If A = { 1, 2, 3 } and B = { 3, 4}, then

A x B = { (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4), (3,3), (3,4) }.

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 12

1.4 RELATIONS (Cont.)

Definition 2 (Relation)

## A relation between sets A & B is a subset R of A x B.

We read (a,b) R as “ a is related to b “.

## The equality relation “ = “ defined on a set by

= is the subset { (x, x) | xS } of S x S.
Thus,
for any xS, we have x = x .
But, if x and y are different elements of S, then
(x,y) = (can be written as xy )

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 13

1.4 RELATIONS (Cont.)

Definition 3 ( Partition)

## A partition of a set S is a collection of nonempty subsets of S such that

every element of S is in exactly one of the subsets.

## The subsets are the cells of the partition.

Example 6
.a
Let S = { a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h }
.c .h
.b
.f
.g .d .e
Cells,

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 14

1.4 RELATIONS (Cont.)

## An equivalence relation R on a set S is one that satisfies these three

properties for all x, y, z  S.
1. Reflexive x R x
2. Symmetric If x R y then y R x
3. Transitive If x R y and y R z then x R z

Example 7

## Let relation R on a set Z be defined by n R m if and only if nm  0.

Determine whether R is an equivalence relation.

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 15

1.4 RELATIONS (Cont.)

Solution :

1. To show R is reflexive.
Since a . a = a2  0
Then, a R a.

2. To show R is symmetric.
Let a R b for a, b  Z.
Then , ab  0.
Since a . b = b . a in Z, then ba  0.
Hence, b R a.

3. To show R is transitive.
Let a R b and b R c for a, b, c in Z.
Then, ab  0 and bc  0.
Hence, ac  0.
Then, we have a R c.
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1.5 FUNCTIONS

Definition 1 ( Function )

## A function  mapping X into Y is a relation between X and Y with the

property that each xX appears as the first member of exactly one
ordered pair (x,y) in .

## Such a function is also called map or mapping of X into Y. We write

: X  Y and express (x,y) by (x) = y.

denoted by |X|.

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 17

Example.

The correspondence
 : Q  Z given by (a/b) = a + b

## does not define a function since,

1/2 = 2/4 but (1/2) = 1 + 2 = 3
not equal to
(2/4) = 2 + 4 = 6

.3

. 1/2 = 2/4
.6

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 18

1.5 FUNCTIONS (Cont.)

## A function : X  Y is one to one if

for all x1, x2  X, (x1) = (x2) then x1 = x2.

## Definition 3 ( Onto function)

A function : X  Y is onto if
for all y  Y, exist xX such that f(x) = y.

## The function  is onto Y if the range of  is Y.

Onto-
1-1 - injection surjection

Bijection
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Exercise:

## Determine whether the following function is one to one and onto.

i. Function f: R  R is defined by
f(x) = 2x + 3.
ii. Function f : Z  Z is defined by
f(x) = 2x.
iii. Function f : Z  2Z is defined by
f(x) = 2x. for x in Z.
iv. Function f : R+  R is defined by
f(x) = log10(x). for x in R+
v. Function f : R  R+ is defined by
f(x) = 0.3x for x in R.

## SMA3033 SEM 2 2017/2018 20

1.5 FUNCTIONS (Cont.)

## Definition 4 ( Same Cardinality)

Two sets X and Y have the same cardinality if there exists a 1-1
function mapping X onto Y, that is, if exists a 1-1 correspondence
between X and Y.

Example 8

## Function f:R  R , where f(x) = x2.

Not 1-1 - since f(6) = f(-6) = 4. But 6 -6.
Not onto R - since the range is the proper subset of all
nonnegative numbers in R.

1-1 & Onto.