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ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES

SMA 3033
SEMESTER 2 2017/2018

CHAPTER 1 : GROUPS & SUBGROUPS

BY:
DR ROHAIDAH HJ MASRI

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CHAPTER 1 : PRELIMINARIES

• Algebra provides a generalization of arithmetic by using symbols,


usually letters, to represent numbers.

• For example, it is obviously true that


2+3=3+2

• This arithmetic statement can be generalized using algebra to


x+y=y+x
where x and y can be any number.

Algebra has been studied for many centuries

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1.1 PRELIMINARIES

Algebra Abstract Algebra


• In algebra, numbers are often • sometimes also called modern
denoted by symbols (such as a, algebra, in which algebraic
x, or y). structures such as groups, rings
and fields are axiomatically defined
and investigated.
• Linear algebra, in which the
specific properties of vector spaces
are studied (including) matrices.
• allows the general formulation • extends the familiar concepts found
of arithmetical laws (such as a + in elementary algebra and
b = b + a for all a and b). arithmetic of numbers to more
• the study of how to solve these : general concepts.
for instance, "Find a number x Eg.
such that 3x + 1 = 10" or going a 1. All collections of the familiar types
bit further "Find a number x of numbers are sets.
such that ax+b=c" 2. The notion of addition (+) is
abstracted to give a binary operation,
∗ say.
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1.2 LOGIC & PROOF

Logic is the study of reasoning.

Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms
are valid, and which are fallacies.
give general
conclusions from
Two parts of logic : - Inductive reasoning specific examples

- Deductive reasoning
Give logical
conclusions from
definitions and
axioms

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1.2 LOGIC & PROOF (Cont.)

• In mathematics, a proof is a convincing demonstration that some


mathematical statement is necessarily true.

• A proof must demonstrate that a statement is true in all cases,


without a single exception.

• Some terms:
Conjecture - An unproved proposition that is believed to be
true.
Theorem - The statement that is proved.
Lemma - The statement which is used as a stepping stone in
the proof of another theorem.

Note : Proofs employ logic.

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1.2 LOGIC & PROOF (Cont.)

Methods of proof

Direct proof Contradiction Mathematics Induction

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1.2 LOGIC & PROOF (Cont.)

Direct Proof Mathematics Induction


Example: Example:
(To prove the sum of two even The principle of mathematical
integers is always even) induction states that:
Let N = { 1, 2, 3, 4, ... } be the set of
Consider two even integers x and y. natural numbers and P(n) be a
Since they are even, then, mathematical statement involving the
x=2a and y=2b for integers a and b. natural number n belonging to N
Then such that
the sum x + y = 2a + 2b = 2(a + b). (i) P(1) is true, i.e., P(n) is true for n =
From this it is clear x+y has 2 as a 1
factor and therefore is even, (ii) P(n + 1) is true whenever P(n) is
so the sum of any two even integers is true, i.e., P(n) is true implies that
even.  P(n + 1) is true.
Then P(n) is true for all natural
numbers n.

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Example:

Prove that sum of an even number and an odd number is always odd.

Proof: (Direct method) Proof: (contradiction method)

Let x is an even number & Let x is an even number &


y is an odd number. y is an odd number.
Then, and let the sum of of x & y is even.
x = 2m mZ
y = 2n + 1 nZ Then,
Next, x + y = 2k for some kZ
To determine the sum of x & y; Hence
x+y x & y must be even.
= 2m + (2n + 1) This is contradict with the
= 2(m + n) + 1, where assumption that y is odd number.
Then, (m + n)Z
x + y is odd  Therefore, the sum of even and odd
numbers is odd. 

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Incorrect proof :

Let x =2 , y = 3
Then,
x + y = 2 + 3 = 5.
Then,

x + y is odd. X

Note : This is not true for all cases!!! (except for counterexample)

The counterexample method can be used to disprove a statement.

Given a statement x , P(x) . To disprove this statement:


 need only to find one value, say c, such that P(c) is false
 The value c is called a counterexample to the conjecture.

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1.3 SETS

Definition & notions

Set - A well-defined collection of objects.

Well defined
Eg. If S is a set & b
is some object, then
either b definitely
Element in S or definitely
Empty Set Subset
Eg. aG not in S.
 -Proper
- a is an element of
-improper
set G

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1.3 SETS (Cont.)
Example 1

{1, 3, 5, 7, 9} = { x | x is an odd positive integer number  10 }


= { 2x – 1 | x = 1, 2 , 3, 4 , 5}

Example 2

Let S = { a, b, c}.
This set S has a total of eight subsets: 2n
, {a}, {b}, {c}, {a,b}, {a,c}, {b,c}, {a,b,c}

Example 3

Decide whether the object described is indeed a set (is well defined).
Not well
i. {nZ+ | n is a large number } defined
ii. { n Z | n2 < 0 } Well
defined
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1.4 RELATIONS

Definition 1 ( Cartesian Product)

Let A & B be sets. The set A x B = {(a, b) | a A bB }


is the Cartesian product of A & B.

Example 4

If A = { 1, 2, 3 } and B = { 3, 4}, then


A x B = { (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4), (3,3), (3,4) }.

Note: Some examples of sets of numbers

Q , Z, R, Z+, Q+, R+, Z*, Q*, R* , C

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1.4 RELATIONS (Cont.)

Definition 2 (Relation)

A relation between sets A & B is a subset R of A x B.


We read (a,b) R as “ a is related to b “.

Example 5 (Equality Relation)

The equality relation “ = “ defined on a set by


= is the subset { (x, x) | xS } of S x S.
Thus,
for any xS, we have x = x .
But, if x and y are different elements of S, then
(x,y) = (can be written as xy )

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1.4 RELATIONS (Cont.)

Definition 3 ( Partition)

A partition of a set S is a collection of nonempty subsets of S such that


every element of S is in exactly one of the subsets.

The subsets are the cells of the partition.

Example 6
.a
Let S = { a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h }
.c .h
.b
.f
.g .d .e
Cells,

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1.4 RELATIONS (Cont.)

Definition 4 ( Equivalence Relation )

An equivalence relation R on a set S is one that satisfies these three


properties for all x, y, z  S.
1. Reflexive x R x
2. Symmetric If x R y then y R x
3. Transitive If x R y and y R z then x R z

Example 7

Let relation R on a set Z be defined by n R m if and only if nm  0.


Determine whether R is an equivalence relation.

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1.4 RELATIONS (Cont.)

Solution :

1. To show R is reflexive.
Since a . a = a2  0
Then, a R a.

2. To show R is symmetric.
Let a R b for a, b  Z.
Then , ab  0.
Since a . b = b . a in Z, then ba  0.
Hence, b R a.

3. To show R is transitive.
Let a R b and b R c for a, b, c in Z.
Then, ab  0 and bc  0.
Hence, ac  0.
Then, we have a R c.
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1.5 FUNCTIONS

Definition 1 ( Function )

A function  mapping X into Y is a relation between X and Y with the


property that each xX appears as the first member of exactly one
ordered pair (x,y) in .

Such a function is also called map or mapping of X into Y. We write


: X  Y and express (x,y) by (x) = y.

The domain of  is the set X and set Y is the codomain of .

The range of  is [X] = { (x) | xX }.

Note: The number of elements in a set X is the cardinality of X,


denoted by |X|.

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Example.

The correspondence
 : Q  Z given by (a/b) = a + b

does not define a function since,


1/2 = 2/4 but (1/2) = 1 + 2 = 3
not equal to
(2/4) = 2 + 4 = 6

.3

. 1/2 = 2/4
.6

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1.5 FUNCTIONS (Cont.)

Definition 2 ( One to one function)

A function : X  Y is one to one if


for all x1, x2  X, (x1) = (x2) then x1 = x2.

Definition 3 ( Onto function)

A function : X  Y is onto if
for all y  Y, exist xX such that f(x) = y.

The function  is onto Y if the range of  is Y.

Onto-
1-1 - injection surjection

Bijection
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Exercise:

Determine whether the following function is one to one and onto.

i. Function f: R  R is defined by
f(x) = 2x + 3.
ii. Function f : Z  Z is defined by
f(x) = 2x.
iii. Function f : Z  2Z is defined by
f(x) = 2x. for x in Z.
iv. Function f : R+  R is defined by
f(x) = log10(x). for x in R+
v. Function f : R  R+ is defined by
f(x) = 0.3x for x in R.

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1.5 FUNCTIONS (Cont.)

Definition 4 ( Same Cardinality)

Two sets X and Y have the same cardinality if there exists a 1-1
function mapping X onto Y, that is, if exists a 1-1 correspondence
between X and Y.

Example 8

Function f:R  R , where f(x) = x2.


Not 1-1 - since f(6) = f(-6) = 4. But 6 -6.
Not onto R - since the range is the proper subset of all
nonnegative numbers in R.

Function g: R  R , where g(x) = x3.


1-1 & Onto.

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