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PROJECTILE MOTION

Lech Jedral
2006
Part 1. Part 2.

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Introduction
 Projectile
Motion:
Motion through the air without a propulsion
 Examples:
Part 1.
Motion of Objects Projected
Horizontally
y v0

x
y

x
y

x
y

x
y

x
y

•Motion is accelerated
•Acceleration is constant,
and downward
• a = g = -9.81m/s2
•The horizontal (x)
component of velocity is
g = -9.81m/s2 constant
•The horizontal and vertical
motions are independent of
each other, but they have a
common time x
ANALYSIS OF MOTION
ASSUMPTIONS:
• x-direction (horizontal): uniform motion
• y-direction (vertical): accelerated motion
• no air resistance
QUESTIONS:
• What is the trajectory?
• What is the total time of the motion?
• What is the horizontal range?
• What is the final velocity?
Frame of reference: Equations of motion:

y
X Y
v0
Uniform m. Accel. m.
ACCL. ax = 0 ay = g = -9.81
h g m/s2
VELC. vx = v 0 vy = g t

x DSPL. x = v0 t y = h + ½ g t2
0
Trajectory
x = v0 t y
y = h + ½ g t2 Parabola, open down
Eliminate time, t h
t = x/v0
y = h + ½ g (x/v0)2 v01 v02 > v01

y = h + ½ (g/v02) x2
y = ½ (g/v02) x2 + h
x
Total Time, Δt Δt = tf - ti
y = h + ½ g t2
final y = 0 y

0 = h + ½ g (Δt)2 ti =0
Solve for Δt: h

Δt = √ 2h/(-g)

Δt = √ 2h/(9.81ms-2)
tf =Δt
Total time of motion depends
only on the initial height, h x
Horizontal Range, Δx
x = v0 t
y
final y = 0, time is
the total time Δt

Δ x = v0 Δ t h

Δt = √ 2h/(-g)

Δx = v0 √ 2h/(-g)
Δx
Horizontal range depends on the
initial height, h, and the initial
x
velocity, v0
VELOCITY

vx = v0

Θ
vy = g t
v
v = √vx 2 + vy 2

= √v02+g2t2

tg Θ = v / v = g t / v
y x 0
FINAL VELOCITY

vx = v0

Δt = √ 2h/(-g) Θ tg Θ = g Δt / v0
vy = g t
v = -(-g)√2h/(-g) / v0
v = √vx 2 + vy 2
= -√2h(-g) / v0
v = √v02+g2(2h /(-g))
Θ is negative
v=√ v02+ 2h(-g) (below the
horizontal line)
HORIZONTAL THROW - Summary
h – initial height, v0 – initial horizontal velocity, g = -9.81m/s2

Trajectory Half -parabola, open

down
Total time Δt = √ 2h/(-g)

Final Velocity v = √ v02+ 2h(-g)

tg Θ = -√2h(-g) / v0
Part 2.
Motion of objects projected at an
angle
y

vi Initial position: x = 0, y = 0

Initial velocity: vi = vi [Θ]

viy
Velocity components:
x- direction : vix = vi cos Θ
y- direction : viy = vi sin Θ
θ
x
vix
y

a =g=
- 9.81m/s2
• Motion is accelerated
• Acceleration is constant, and
downward
• a = g = -9.81m/s2
• The horizontal (x) component of
velocity is constant
• The horizontal and vertical
motions are independent of each
other, but they have a common
time

x
ANALYSIS OF MOTION:
ASSUMPTIONS
• x-direction (horizontal): uniform motion
• y-direction (vertical): accelerated motion
• no air resistance
QUESTIONS
• What is the trajectory?
• What is the total time of the motion?
• What is the horizontal range?
• What is the maximum height?
• What is the final velocity?
Equations of motion:

X Y
Uniform motion Accelerated motion
ACCELERATION ax = 0 ay = g = -9.81 m/s2

VELOCITY vx = vix= vi cos Θ vy = viy+ g t

vx = vi cos Θ vy = vi sin Θ + g t
DISPLACEMENT x = vix t = vi t cos Θ y = h + viy t + ½ g t2
x = vi t cos Θ y = vi t sin Θ + ½ g t2
Equations of motion:

X Y
Uniform motion Accelerated motion
ACCELERATION ax = 0 ay = g = -9.81 m/s2

DISPLACEMENT x = vi t cos Θ y = vi t sin Θ + ½ g t2

Trajectory
x = vi t cos Θ
Parabola, open down
y = vi t sin Θ + ½ g t2 y
Eliminate time, t
t = x/(vi cos Θ)
vi x sin  gx 2
y  2
vi cos  2vi cos 2 
g
y  x tan   x 2

2vi2 cos 2 

y = bx + ax2
x
Total Time, Δt
y = vi t sin Θ + ½ g t2
final height y = 0, after time interval Δt
0 = vi Δt sin Θ + ½ g (Δt)2
Solve for Δt:

0 = vi sin Θ + ½ g Δt x

2 vi sin Θ
Δt = t=0 Δt
(-g)
Horizontal Range, Δx
x = vi t cos Θ y
final y = 0, time is
the total time Δt

Δx = vi Δt cos Θ
2 vi sin Θ
Δt = x
(-g) 0
sin (2 Θ) = 2 sin Θ cos Θ
Δx
2vi 2 sin Θ cos Θ vi 2 sin (2 Θ)
Δx = Δx =
(-g) (-g)
Horizontal Range, Δx
vi 2 sin (2 Θ)
Δx =
(-g)

Θ (deg) sin (2 Θ)
•CONCLUSIONS:
0 0.00
•Horizontal range is greatest for the
15 0.50 throw angle of 450
30 0.87
45 1.00 • Horizontal ranges are the same for
60 0.87 angles Θ and (900 – Θ)
75 0.50

90 0
Trajectory and horizontal range
g
y  x tan   2 x 2

2vi cos 2 

35

30
vi = 25 m/s
15 deg
25 30 deg
45 deg
20
60 deg
15
75 deg
10

0
0 20 40 60 80
Velocity

•Final speed = initial speed (conservation of energy)

•Impact angle = - launch angle (symmetry of parabola)
Maximum Height
vy = vi sin Θ + g t
y = vi t sin Θ + ½ g t2
At maximum height vy = 0

0 = vi sin Θ + g tup hmax = vi t upsin Θ + ½ g tup2

hmax = vi2 sin2 Θ/(-g) + ½ g(vi2 sin2 Θ)/g2
vi sin Θ
tup =
(-g) vi2 sin2 Θ
hmax =
2(-g)
tup = Δt/2
Projectile Motion – Final Equations
(0,0) – initial position, vi = vi [Θ]– initial velocity, g = -9.81m/s2
Trajectory Parabola, open down

2 vi sin Θ
Total time Δt =
(-g)

vi 2 sin (2 Θ)
Horizontal range Δx =
(-g)

vi2 sin2 Θ
Max height hmax =
2(-g)
PROJECTILE MOTION - SUMMARY
 Projectile motion is motion with a constant
horizontal velocity combined with a constant
vertical acceleration
 The projectile moves along a parabola

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