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Noise-adaptive filtering of seismic shot records

by: Richard G. Anderson and George A.


McMechan (1988)

Intan Andriani Putri


22316002

Institut Teknologi Bandung


2017
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Introduction

Algorithms

Result

Discussion

Conclution
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Pre-stack analysis of CMP data becomes common, so there will


be a need for better pre-stack noise-suppression techniques

Noise-adaptive Filter
Spectral Subtraction
Can be implemented as frequency, f-k,
and double 1-D f-k filter
Attenuates noise with minimal
distortion of the signal
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Noise Filtered Signal


Signal & Noise
Amplitude IFT
scaling
FT FT Phase Reconstruct original
Spectrum phase spectrum
Amplitude Amplitude
spectra spectra

Subtract Zero negative


amplitude amplitude
spectra
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

In general, 2-D f-k domain algorithm is similar with


1-D frequency domain.

High-amplitude noisy traces can distort the signal

The trace equalization before FT


t x Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution
Noise

Signal
+Noise Amplitude balancing & tx
Noise-adaptive scaling
frequency filter Filtered
2-D FT
Filtered signal Data
f,k
Amplitude balancing
Average positive frequency Amplitude recovery
2-D FT
K
f,k 2-D IFT
For each frequency: subtract amplitude
spectra, sero negative amplitudes, and
reconstruct original phase spectrum
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution
Synthetic Seismogram Noise Strip Input

N-A Frequency Bandpass Frequency


Offset (km)
Time (s)

Bandpass f-k N-A 2D f-k N-A Double 1D f-k


Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Correlation
coefficient
0.83

The ability of the noise-adaptive double 1-D f-k filter to interpolate the signal at dead traces
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Broadband Noise
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Non-stationary Noise
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Frequency and wavenumber amplitude spectra


Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

The correct choice of noise-adaptive filter depends upon the characteristics of the noise

1. Significant differences
between the wavenumber
spectra of the noise and
signal.
2. The noise is broadband,
spatially coherent, and not
severely aliased
3. Significant spatial variations in
the noise frequencies
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Comparison of filter
1. Band elimination filter is appropriate if the f-k band of the noise lies
within only small proportion the f-k band of the signal
2. Bandpass or band elimination filter appropriate if the f-k band of the
noise lies outside the f-k band of the signal
3. Noise-adaptive filters appropriate if the noise lies inside the f-k band
of the signal on some shot records and outside on others
4. Noise-adaptive filters is better than conventional filters if the noise
is stationary and there are significant spatial variations in the S/N
ratio or the f-k spectra of the noise.
5. Noise-adaptive filter performance is comparable to the notch filter,
however notch filter need parameter testing in every shot records.
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Limitations in noise-adaptive filter is based on:


1. The similarities between the amplitude spectra of the signal
and noise
2. Nonstationary noise
3. The input S/N ratio
4. Window artifacts associated with the Fourier transform of
data in finite length
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

Practical Consideration
1. Transient should be removed before noise-adaptive damping
filtering.
2. Noisy traces should be edited after noise-adaptive filtering.
3. Noise-adaptive filtering should be done before geometrical
divergence corrections.

Noise-adaptive damping will gives significant improvement only when


there is visible noise before the first arrival. If there is no visible noise,
it will not degrade the signal. But, this filter should not be used in the
data that contain nonstationary noise.
Introduction Algorithms Result Discussion Conclution

1. This method gives better result than conventional


frequency and f-k filter because it adapts to the
spatial variations in noise, attenuates noise with
minimal distortion of the signal, and does not
require parameter testing
2. The noise-adaptive f-k filter can interpolate the data
onto zero traces and gives greater noise attenuation
than frequency filter
3. The noise-adaptive double 1-D f-k filter is the most
useful algorithm.