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SISTEM KOMUNIKASI BERGERAK

Teknik Multiple Access pada Sistem Cellular

JURUSAN TEKNIK ELEKTRO


POLITEKNIK NEGERI MALANG
MALANG, 2019

SISTEM SELULER :04


Definisi Multiple Access
Adalah suatu teknik yang memungkinkan suatu
titik ( Base Station ) untuk dapat diakses oleh
beberapa titik yang saling berjauhan ( Subriber
Station ) dengan tidak saling mengganggu
Fungsi Multiple Access:
• Digunakan untuk mengorganisasi user dalam
memberikan komunikasi yang bebas interferensi
• Menyalurkan beberapa informasi secara
serentak dalam satu spektrum.

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Simplex Communication
• Normally, on a channel, a station can
transmit only in one way.
• This is called simplex transmision
• To enable two-way communication
(called full-duplex communication)
• We can use Frequency Division Multiplexing
• We can use Time Division Multiplexing

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Duplex Communication - FDD
• FDD ( Frequency Division Duplex ).

Mobile Forward Channel Base Station


Terminal B
Reverse Channel
M

Forward Channel and Reverse Channel use different frequency


bands

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Duplexing - FDD
• A duplex channel consists of F
B M
two simplex channel with
different carrier frequencies Base R Mobile
• Forward band: carries traffic from
base to mobile Station Station
• Reverse band: carries traffic from
mobile to base

Reverse Forward
Channel Channel

fc,R fc,,F frequency

Frequency separation
Frequency separation should be carefully decided
Frequency separation is constant

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Duplexing - TDD
• A single radio channel (carrier
frequency) is shared in time in a
deterministic manner. B M
• The time is slotted with fixed slot
length (sec) Base Mobile
• Some slots are used for forward
channel (traffic from base to mobile) Station Station
• Some slots are used for reverse
channel (traffic from mobile to base)

Slot number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 …
channel F R F R F R F R ….

Reverse Forward
Channel Channel

Ti Ti+1 time

Time separation
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Duplex Communication - TDD
• TDD ( Time Division Duplex ).

Mobile Base Station


Terminal M B M B M B
B
M

A singe frequency channel is used. The channel is divided into time


slots. Mobile station and base station transmits on the time slots
alternately.

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Perbedaan FDD & TDD

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Frequency Division Multiple Access
Principles
• A voice channel uses the
same frequency band all
the time
– Other users must use other
frequencies
• One frequency band is
reserved for signaling

CH 1 F1
CH 2 F2
CH 3 F3
BW
.

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Capacity of FDMA Systems
Frequency spectrum allocated for FDMA system


Guard channel Guard
Band Band
Bt  2 Bguard
N
Bc
Bt : Total spectrum allocation
Bguard: Guard band allocated at the edge of the spectrum band
Bc : Bandwidth of a channel

AMPS has 12.MHz simplex spectrum band, 10Khz guard band, 30kHz
channel bandwidth (simplex): Number of channels is 416.

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Time Division Multiple Access Principles

• A voice channel shares the


same frequency band with
other voice channels
– Each channel gets
assigned to a periodic
time slot
• Signaling still use a
dedicated frequency band
F

. . . . . .

BW

t
T1 T2 T3
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TDMA Concept
Downstream Traffic: Forward Channels: (from base to mobiles)

1 2 3 … N 1 2 3 …. N …

Logical forward channel to a mobile

Base station broadcasts to mobiles on each slot

Upstream Traffic: Reverse Channels: (from mobile to base)


1 2 3 … N 1 2 3 …. N …

Logical reverse channel from a mobile


A mobile transmits to the base station in its allocated slot

Upstream and downstream traffic uses of the two different carrier frequencies.
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General Frame and Time Slot
Structure in TDMA Systems
One TDMA Frame

Preamble Information Trail Bits

Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 … Slot N

Guard Sync Control


Bits Bits Bits Information CRC

One TDMA Slot

A Frame repeats in time


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A TDMA Frame
• Preamble contains address and
synchronization info to identify base
station and mobiles to each other
• Guard times are used to allow
synchronization of the receivers between
different slots and frames
• Different mobiles may have different propagation
delays to a base station because of different
distances.

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Efficiency of a Frame/TDMA-System

• Each frame contains overhead bits and data bits.


• Efficiency of frame is defined as the percentage of data
(information) bits to the total frame size in bits.
bOH
efficiency   f  (1  ) x100%
bT
bT  T f xR
bT: total number of bits in a frame
Tf: frame duration (seconds)
bOH: number of overhead bits

( Btot  2 Bguard )
Number of channels in a TDMA cell: N m
Bc
m: maximum number of TDMA users supported in a radio channel

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TDMA
• TDMA Efficiency
– GSM: 30% overhead
– DECT: 30% overhead
– IS-54: 20% overhead.

TDMA is usually combined with FDMA


– Neighboring cells be allocated and using different carrier
frequencies (FDMA). Inside a cell TDMA can be used. Cells may
be re-using the same frequency if they are far from each-other.
– There may be more than one carrier frequency (radio channel)
allocated and used inside each cell. Each carrier frequency
(radio channel) may be using TDMA to further multiplex more
user (i.e. having TDMA logical channels inside radio channels)
– For example: GSM uses multiple radio channels per cell site. Each
radio channel has 200KHz bandwidth and has 8 time slots (8 logical
channels). Hence GSM is using FHMA combined with TDMA.

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Contemporary TDMA Systems
GSM IS-54 PDC DECT
(Europa) (USA) (Japan) (European
Cordless)
Bit Rate 270.8 Kbps 48.6 Kbps 42 Kbps 1.152 Mbps

Bandwidth 200 KHz 30 KHz 25 KHz 1.728 MHz

Time Slot 0.577 ms 6.7 ms 6.7 ms 0.417 ms

Upstream slots 8 3 3 12
per frame

Duplexing FDD FDD FDD TDD

Efficiency of 73 % 80 % 80 % 67 %
Time Slots

Modulation GMSK p/4 DQPSK p/4 DQPSK GMSK

Adaptive Mandatory Mandatory Optional None


Equalized

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Features of TDMA
– Enables the sharing of a single radio channel among N users
– Requires high data-rate per radio channel to support N users
simultaneously.
• High data-rate on a radio channel with fixed bandwidth requires
adaptive equalizers to be used in multipath environments
(remember the RSM delay spread s parameter)
– Transmission occurs in bursts (not continues)
– Enables power saving by going to sleep modes in unrelated slots
– Discontinues transmission also enables mobile assisted handoff
– Requires synchronization of the receivers.
– Need guard bits, sync bits. large overhead per slot.
– Allocation of slots to mobile users should not be uniform.
– It may depend on the traffic requirement of mobiles.
– This brings extra flexibility and efficiency compared to FDMA systems.

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Capacity of TDMA Systems
• Capacity can be expressed as
– System Capacity (the capacity of the overall system covering a region)
– Depends on:
» Range of cells
» Whether the system can support macro-cells, micro-cells or pico-cells.
– Cell Capacity
– Depends on the radio link performance between a base-sation and
mobiles:
» The lowest C/I (carrier-to-interence) ratio the system can operate for
example quality of transmission. This in turn depends on the speech
coding technique, desired speech quality, etc.
» Data-rate over the channel which depends modulation efficiency
(bits_per_second/Hz) and channel bandwidth.
» The frequency re-use factor

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System Capacity Cluster: 7 cells constitute a cluster.

Cluster size = 7
C B
y
A B D
x
A G
z
G E A

Frequency reuse factor is 1/7: same frequency is used every 7 cell.


A is one set of frequencies, B is an other, etc.

A mobile in cell x receives carrier signal from base x and interferences from
base stations at cells y and z. The carrier signal strength of all combined signal
strength from interfering base stations is called C/I or S/I ratio.
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Comparing Systems
– AMPS Parameters – GSM Parameters
– Channel bandwidth = 30Khz – Channel banwidth: 200 KHz
– Required C/I: 18 dB – Required bandwidth per user =
– Frequency re-use factor: 1/7 200/8 = 25 Khz.
(cluster size=7) – Required minimum C/I: 9dB
– Required bandwidth per user = – Frequency re-use factor: 1/3
30kHz. (cluster size=3)

1
system_cap acity 
channel_bandw idth_required_per_user

1
system_cap acity   frequency_ reuse_fact or
cluster_si ze

capacity(GSM) 1 / 3 1 / 25
   2.8
capacity(AMPS) 1 / 7 1 / 30
assuming other f actorsare same like the range of base stations.

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Code Division Multiple Access Principles
• Many voice channels share
the same frequency band
• No timeslots; all channel
uses the same frequency
simultaneously all the time
– Channels are
differentiated by its code
• Signaling uses a dedicated
frequency band
F
Code

C3
C2
C1 t

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Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
• In CDMA, the narrowband message signal is multiplied by a very large
bandwidth signal called spreading signal (code) before modulation and
transmission over the air. This is called spreading.
• CDMA is also called DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum). DSSS is a
more general term.
• Message consists of symbols
• Has symbol period and hence, symbol rate
• Spreading signal (code) consists of chips
• Has Chip period and and hence, chip rate
• Spreading signal use a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence (a pseudo-random sequence)
• PN sequence is called a codeword
• Each user has its own cordword
• Codewords are orthogonal. (low autocorrelation)
• Chip rate is oder of magnitude larger than the symbol rate.
• The receiver correlator distinguishes the senders signal by examining the
wideband signal with the same time-synchronized spreading code
• The sent signal is recovered by despreading process at the receiver.

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CDMA Advantages
• Low power spectral density.
• Signal is spread over a larger frequency band
• Other systems suffer less from the transmitter
• Interference limited operation
• All frequency spectrum is used
• Privacy
• The codeword is known only between the sender and receiver. Hence other
users can not decode the messages that are in transit
• Reduction of multipath affects by using a larger spectrum
• Random access possible
• Users can start their transmission at any time
• Cell capacity is not concerete fixed like in TDMA or FDMA systems.
Has soft capacity
• Higher capacity than TDMA and FDMA
• No frequency management
• No equalizers needed
• No guard time needed
• Enables soft handoff
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 Spread spectrum technology
 Pseudo-random modulation
 Anti -jam
 Low probability intercept jamming

PRM PRD
hasil spreading hasil despreading
informasi

 Open standard
 Commercial pertama September 1995 : Motorola

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Menggunakan coding
 Satu ruang dengan sejumlah pasangan
 Udara sebagai media
 Bahasa adalah coding sistem
 Bahasa lain dianggap sebagai noise
 Pasangan lain dapat bergabung bersama sampai noise tertentu
 Jika bisik-bisik makin banyak pasangan yang dapat ditampung

The CDMA Cocktail Party

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Prinsip CDMA
Adalah sejumlah user menggunakan resource band RF yang sama
namun setiap user dibedakan dengan menggunakan kode-kode
orthogonal.
Standar IS-95, laju data pada akhir spreading adalah 1,2288Mcps
dan ini membutuhkan bandwidth lebih kurang 1,25 MHz.
Kinerja sistem CDMA dibatasi oleh interferensi, artinya kapasitas
dan kualitas dibatasi oleh daya interferensi yang terjadi pada band
RF yang dipakai.
Kapasitas didifinisikan sebagai jumlah user secara simultan yang
dapat didukung oleh sistem.
Kualitas adalah BER yang dipersyaratkan dalam melayani user

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spreader despreader

identik

Code generator Code generator

• bandwidth generator  bandwidth informasi

• Proses despreading akan menghasilkan output hanya jika generator


disisi penerima berkorelasi dengan signal yang akan didespreading
dan bersifat ortogonal untuk signal yang lain.

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 Contoh pengaturan PILOT_PN

a
27
a
a
19 21
a
13
a a
5 7
a
36
a a

28 30
a a
20 22
a
14

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Excellent call quality

 Soft handoff
 Path diversity ( Rake receiver )

Urban area

BTS

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Balancing

kualitas

kapasitas
coverage

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C(t)

delay adj.
C(t-2)


korelator

BTS C(t-n)

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 Power kontrol sangat bagus

Subc-2
Subc-1

5 km 10 km

Subc-1

Subc-2

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 Shophisticated VOCODER

PCM 01001110101110010110
(64KBPS)
wireline

VOCODER 010011101(8,6KBPS)

wireless

 Advance Error detection & Correction : Konvolusi-Viterbi

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Kapasitas tinggi

Sector-A

Sector-C Sector-B

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Cell breathing (1)

pilot

traffik

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Cell breathing (2)

?
?

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CDMA Principle
Represent bit 1 with +1
Represent bit 0 with -1
One bit period (symbol period)

1 1
Data
0

PN-Code 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
(codeword)

Coded
Signal

Chip period
Input to the modulator (phase modulation)

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Processing Gain
• Main parameter of CDMA is the processing gain that is
defined as:

Bspread Bchip
Gp  
R R
Gp: processing gain
Bspread: PN code rate
Bchip: Chip rate
R: Data rate

• IS-95 System (Narrowband CDMA) has a gain of 64. Other


systems have gain between 10 and 100.
– 1.228 Mhz chipping rate
– 1.25 MHz spread bandwidth

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Near Far Problem and Power Control
• At a receiver, the signals may come from
various (multiple sources). B pr(M)
• The strongest signal usually captures the
modulator. The other signals are considered as
noise
• Each source may have different distances to the M
base station
• In CDMA, we want a base station to
receive CDMA coded signals from M
various mobile users at the same time.
• Therefore the receiver power at the base station
for all mobile users should be close to each other. M
• This requires power control at the mobiles.
M
• Power Control: Base station monitors
the RSSI values from different mobiles
and then sends power change commands
to the mobiles over a forward channel.
The mobiles then adjust their transmit
power.
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DSSS Transmitter
Message Baseband sss(t)
+
m(t) BPF Transmitted
p(t) Signal

PN Code
Generator Oscillator
fc

Chip Clock

2 Es
sss (t )  m(t ) p(t ) cos( 2pf ct   )
Ts

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DSSS Receiver
s1 (t ) m(t )
IF Wideband Phase Shift Keying
Filter Demodulator Received
Data
sss (t ) p (t )
Received PN Code Synchronization
DSSS Signal Generator System
at IF

2 Es
s1 (t )  m(t ) cos( 2pf ct   )
Ts

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Spectra of Received Signal
Spectral Interference Spectral
Density Density Signal

Interference

Signal

Frequency Frequency

Output of Wideband filter Output of Correlator after


dispreading,
Input to Demodulator
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CDMA Example (*)
R Receiver (a base station)

Data=1011… Data=0010…

A B

Transmitter (a mobile) Transmitter


Codeword=010011 Codeword=101010

Data transmitted from A and B is multiplexed using CDMA and codewords.


The Receiver de-multiplexes the data using dispreading.

(*) This example is adapted from the CDMA example of Prof. Randy Katz at UC-Berkeley.

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CDMA Example – transmission from two sources

A Data
1 0 1 1

A 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
Codeword

Data Code 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
A Signal

B Data 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
B
Codeword
Data Code 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0
B Signal

Transmitted
A+B
Signal

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CDMA Example – recovering signal A at the receiver
A+B
Signal
received

A
Codeword
at
receiver

(A  B)  Code

Integrator
Output

Comparator
Output 0 1 0 1

Take the inverse of this to obtain A


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CDMA Example – recovering signal B at the receiver
A+B
Signal
received

B
Codeword
at
receiver

(A  B)  Code

Integrator
Output

Comparator
Output
1 1 0 1

Take the inverse of this to obtain B


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CDMA Example – using wrong codeword at the receiver

A+B
Signal
received

Wrong
Codeword
Used at
receiver

Integrator
Output

Comparator
Output X 0 1 1
Noise
Wrong codeword will not be able to decode the original data!
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Cellular Systems and MAC
Cellular System Multiple Access
Technique
AMPS FDMA/FDD
GSM TDMA/FDD
USDC (IS-54 and IS-136) TDMA/FDD
PDC TDMA/FDD
CT2 Cordless Phone FDMA/TDD
DECT Cordless Phone FDMA/TDD
US IS-95 CDMA/FDD
W-CDMA CDMA/FDD
CDMA/TDD
cdma2000 CDMA/FDD
CDMA/TDD

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