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Lesson 3: Supernaturals:

Believe it or Not?
Group 1: Sale, Gonzales, Mallorca, Panes BSA-1D
William James
According to him, the
spiritual self is one of the
four constituents of the
self (Principles of
Psychology, 1890.) It is
the most intimate, inner
subjective part of the self.
Rebecca Stein works on
the definition of religion
as a set of cultural beliefs
and practices that usually
includes some or all of
the basic characteristics
which are:
1.A belief in anthropomorphic
supernatural being such as spirit
and gods
2.A focus on the sacred
supernatural where being sacred
refers to a feeling of reverence
and awe.
3.The presence of
supernatural power or
energy that is found on
supernatural beings as well
as physical beauty and
4. The performance of ritual
activities that involves the
manipulation sacred objects
to communicate to
supernatural beings and/or
5. The articulation
of worldview and
moral codes
through narratives
and other means.
6. Provide the creation and
maintenance of social bonds
and mechanism of social
control within community,
provide explanation for
unknown and a sense of
control for individuals.

Ritual is the performance of ceremonial

acts prescribed by a tradition or sacred law.
It is a specific observable mode of
behaviour exhibited by all known societies.
Three fundamental
characteristics of rituals:
1.A feeling or emotion of respect,
awe, fascination or dread in
relation to the sacred
2.Dependence upon a belief system
that is usually expressed in the
language of myth
3.Is symbolic in relation to its
World Religions
and Practices
There are different
religions with different
beliefs and practices.
Some of the major world
religions are Buddhism,
Christianity, Hinduism,
Islam and Judaism.
Buddhism believes that life is
not a bed of roses. Instead
there are suffering, pain and
frustrations. When people
suffer, they want to experience
the goodness of life and avoid
disappointments. This is called
a reactive cycle of wanting and
hating, like and dislike, craving
and dissatisfaction.
Custom and Practices
Two types of meditation:
• Samatha- is practiced as mindfulness
of breathing and development of
loving kindness (Metta Bhavana).
• Vipasanna- practices aim at insight
to developing insight into reality.
Major Celebrations:
Parinirvana Day
(February), Buddha
Day/Wesak (May),
Dharma Day (July),
Padmasambhava Day
(October), Sangha
Day (Novermber).
Christians believe in the
Trinitarian God--the
father (Creator), the Son
(Saviour) and the Holy
Spirit (Sustainer).
Eternal life after death
will be achieved through
faith in Jesus Christ.
Christmas and Easter Sunday are the
major celebrations in Christianity.
Hinduism covers a
wide range of
traditions, beliefs and
religious groups; thus,
there is no single
founder or leader.
They also believe that
life is a cycle of birth,
death and rebirth.
Hindus believe in the
concept of Karma, in
which your reincarnation
depends on how your
previous life was spent.
The two most important
texts of Hindus are the
Ramayana and
There are two most celebrated festivals of the
Hindus. Diwali, the Festival of Lights and
Navrati the Festival of Nine Nights which
celebrates the triumph of hood and evil.
Muslims believe in Allah
who is their God. They also
have a strong sense of
Summah and an awareness
of their solidarity with all
Muslims which means
“wiling submission to God.”
They believe that
Mohammed is the last
and final prophet of
Allah. He was born in
Mecca in 670 CE and
received revelation God
through the Angel
Gabriel for 28 years.
Five Pillars of Islam:
1. Shahadah- statement of
Faith: “There is no God but the
one true God and Mohammed is
his messenger.”
2. Salat- the prayer that is
practiced five times a day.
3. Zakat- the monetary offering for
the benefit of the poor which
comprises 2.5% of a Muslim’s assets.
4. Hajj- the yearly pilgrimage to
5. Sawm- the fasting from food,
drink and sexual acts during the
Celebration of Ramadan.
Jews believe in the God of
Abraham, the same God that
liberated the Jews from
Egypt to Canaan, the
promised land through the
leadership of Moses and
later, Joshua. Jews believe in
the coming of the Messiah.
The sacred scripture is called
the Torah or Law.
There are five major festivals
observed by the Jews:
1. Rosh Hashanah-
New Year
2. Pom Kippur- Day of
3. Pesach- Passover
4. -Pentecost
5. Sukkot- Pilgrimage
Finding and Creating the Meaning of Life
Another extensive study of
the self can be found in the
works of Dr. Viktor E.
Frankl. He was born on
March 36, 21905 where
famous psychiatrists
Sigmund Freud and Alfred
Adller are born. At a young
age, he wrote a paper to
Freud and was published
three years later.
Is a psychotherapy introduced by Dr.
Victor Frankl who is considered the
father of Logotherapy. Its main belief is
that “man’s primary motivational force
is search for meaning.” It uses the face
of optimism in the face of tragedy.
Basic concepts of
Franklian Psychology
Life has meaning under all
Main motivation for living is
our will to find meaning in life.
Freedom to find meaning.
Furthermore, Franklian
psychology aims to:
1. become aware of the
spiritual resources
2. make conscious spiritual
3. use defiant power of the
human spirit” and stand up
Logotherapy Assumptions
1.The human being is an entity
consisting of body, mind and spirit.
This first assumption deals with the
body (soma), mind (psyche) and spirit
(noos). According to Frankl, the body
and mind are what we have and the
spirit is what we are.
2. Life has meaning under all
circumstances, even the most
3. People have a will to meaning.
When we see meaning, we are ready
for any type of suffering. This is
considered to be different than our
will to achieve power and pleasure.
4. People have freedom under all
circumstances to activate the will
to find meaning. We are free to
achieve our will to find meaning,
and this can be done under
circumstances. This deals with
change of attitude about
unavoidable fate.
5.Life has a demand quality to
which people must respond if
decisions are to be meaningful.
The meaning of the moment is
more practical in daily living
than ultimate meaning.
6.The individual is unique.
of Meaning
Propova discussed Victor Frankl’s
work. According to him, there are
three possible sources of the
meaning of life:
1. Purposeful work. To find the
meaning of life starts with holding a
future goal. Each individual has each
own future goal to achieve or a task
to perform. That task or goal to fulfil
becomes the meaning of their life.
Therefore, meaning of life is unique
to every individual.
2.Courage in the face of difficulty. A
meaningful life is a life with
suffering. Suffering is an inevitable
part of life. To find the meaning of
life is to recognize suffering, pain,
and death as part of life and to have
the courage to face these life
3.Love. The ultimate secret on
the spiritual foundation of life
is that love is salvation and joy
for eternity. The ultimate
factor to find the meaning of
life is love. (Constello 2015)
Dr. Frankl’s wife, parents and
some relatives were victims of
the gas chambers. His love for
his wife kept him fighting for
his life. Popova quoted Dr.
Frankl’s notes about his
experience in the Nazi Camp:
“For hours I stood hacking at the icy
ground. The guard passed by, insulting
me, and once again I communed with
my beloved. More and more I felt that
she was present, that she was with me:
I had the feeling that I was able to
touch her, able to stretch out my hand
and grasp hers.
The feeling was very strong: she
was there. Then at the very
moment, a bird flew down
silently and perched just in front
of me, on the heap of soil which
dug up room the ditch, and
looked steadily at me.”
Love is the only way to grasp another
human being in the innermost core of
his personality. No one can be fully
aware of the very essence of another
human being unless he loves him. By
his love, he is enabled to see the
essential traits and features in the
beloved person.
In essence, all humans are
unique and we all go through
unique situations and are
constantly looking for
Thank you for
listening! 