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# Applied Physics

GSC 113

Week 7+8

Maryam Iqbal
Class BEE 1A/1B

1
Chapter 28
 What produces magnetic field?

##  Electrons have intrinsic magnetic field (intrinsic=basic

characteristic of a material)

##  Permanent Magnet (net magnetic field by electrons in certain

materials)
•Breaking a bar
magnet does
not separate
its poles
•There is no
experimental
evidence for
magnetic
monopoles.
◦ Forces between
magnetic poles mimic
forces between charges.
◦ BUT….either pole
of a permanent
magnet will
attract a metal
like iron??
 Putting a test charge particle q in the vicinity
of the field and measuring the electric force F
acting on the particle.

## How do we define/understand Magnetic field?

(Since there are no monopoles!!!)
 One way is to use moving electrically
charged particles, such as a current in
a wire, to make an electromagnet. The
current produces a magnetic field.
 The other way to produce a magnetic
field is by means of elementary
particle such as electrons.
 The magnetic fields of the electrons in
certain materials add together to give a net
magnetic field around the material. Such
addition is the reason why a permanent
magnet, has a permanent magnetic field. In
other materials, the magnetic fields of the
electrons cancel out, giving no net magnetic
field surrounding the material
 B is a vector quantity.
 B can be defined in terms of the magnetic force FB exerted
on a moving electrically charged test particle.

##  The magnitude of FB is always proportional to v Sin  =>

cross product is involved. B is defined in terms of force
magnitude as:

 Where:
 q= charge of the particle
 B= Magnetic field
 v= Velocity
 FB= Magnetic Force
• Its magnitude is proportional to the magnitude
of the charge.
• The magnitude of the force is also proportional
to the magnitude, or “strength,” of the ﬁeld.
• The magnetic force depends on the particle’s
velocity.
 In vector notation:

##  The force on the particle is equal to the

charge q times the cross product of its
velocity and the field (all measured in the
same reference frame).

## Where: Φ= angle b/w direction of v and B.

The force FB acting on the charged particle
moving with velocity v through a magnetic field
B is always perpendicular to v and B.
(Right hand rule)
•A moving charge (or current) creates a
magnetic field in the surrounding space.
•Magnetic fields denoted with letter “B”
•measured in Tesla or Gauss (1T= 104 G)
 Similar concept as Electric Field Lines:

##  The direction of the tangent to a magnetic

field line at any point gives the direction of
magnetic field at that point.
 The spacing between the lines represents
the magnitude. Closer => stronger and vice
versa.
 The relation gives the magnetic force that acts on a
length of straight wire carrying a current I
experiencing a uniform magnetic field B that is
perpendicular to the wire.
 If the magnetic field is not perpendicular to
the wire:
Where:
- L= Length vector of straight wire having direction same as
the conventional current.
 Magnetic force is always perpendicular to the
plane defined by L and B.
 Sample Problem: Page 751
Sample Problem
 Similar concept as Electric Flux.

 SI Unit: Weber.
 The production of “Potential Difference”
across a conductor when it is exposed to a
varying magnetic field.

##  Varying magnetic field?

 An EMF is induced in a loop of wire when the number of
magnetic field lines that pass through the loop is changing.
 The magnitude of the emf induced in a
conducting loop is equal to the rate at which
the magnetic flux through that loop changes
with time.

##  For a coil of N turns:

 Change the magnitude of the magnetic field B within
the coil.

##  Change either the total area of the coil or the portion of

that area that lies within the magnetic field (for
example, by expanding the coil or sliding it into or out
of the field.

##  Change the angle between the direction of the

magnetic field and the plane of the coil (for example, by
rotating the coil so that field is first perpendicular to the
plane of the coil and then is along that plane).
 How to calculate Net Electric Field due to any
distribution of charges?
(calculate differential Electric field dE due to every charge element and
then summing)
 The electric field in space is proportional to
the charge which serves as its source.

##  Ampere’s law is a also used for calculating B

provided the distribution has some symmetry.
 Ampere’s law is defined as:

##  Loop sign on integral shows that dot product b/w B and ds is to

be integrated around a closed loop. Ienc is the enclosed current in
the loop.

 Ampere's Law states that for any closed loop path, the sum of
the length elements times the magnetic field in the direction of
the length element is equal to the permeability times the electric
current enclosed in the loop.

 Amperian loop.
 3 Currents

##  Direction of ds (tangent directed along direction of

integration), direction of B (arbitrarily at an angle Ѳ to ds)

##  Ampere’s law can also be written as:

 Direction of thumb is
taken as a positive
convention. Hence i1 is
positive and i2 is negative.

 inet = i1-i2
 Solving the following equation for B:

##  If B = -ive => neglect the –ive sign and

redraw B in the opposite direction.
 An induced current has a direction such that
the magnetic field due to the resulting
current opposes the change in the magnetic
flux that induces the current.
Opposition to Pole movement:

## •The approaching of magnet’s North Pole

increases the magnetic flux and hence induces a
current in the loop.

## •The loop acts as a magnetic di-pole and

magnetic dipole moment is directed from North to
south.

## •The North pole of the di-pole opposes the North

pole of the bar magnet, so as to repel it.

## • At this point, the curled-straight right hand rule

states that the direction of the current induced in
the loop must be clock wise. As the magnet is
pulled away from the loop, a current will be
induced again in the loop, however South will be
facing the North terminal of the magnet and
current would be counter clockwise.
Opposition to Magnetic Flux Change:
• Initially when the magnet is away, there is no flux passing through
the loop.
• Magnetic field B downwards => Magnetic flux increases.
• The induced EMF => Creates a current => Creates a magnetic field
directed upwards inside the loop, hence opposition to the increasing
downwards flux of field B.
 http://mit.tv/yXa6Ym (Practical implementation of Lenz’s law)

 http://freevideolectures.com/Course/2876/F
undamentals-of-Physics-III/11#