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STORAGE DEVICES AND

MEMORY
What is a storage device?

A storage device is any computing hardware that is used for


storing, porting and extracting data files and objects. It can
hold and store information both temporarily and
permanently, and can be internal or external to a computer,
server or any similar computing device.
What is memory?

• A memory is just like a human brain.


• It is used for – (i) Storing data
(ii) Recording data

PRIMARY MEMORY SECONDARY MEMORY


Storage Hierarchy

REGISTER

CACHE MEMORY

PRIMARY MEMORY

SECONDARY MEMORY
REGISTER
■ Registers are a type of computer memory used to quickly accept, store, and
transfer data and instructions that are being used immediately by the CPU.
■ The registers used by the CPU are often termed as Processor registers.
It holds – (i) instructions
(ii) storage address
(iii) data
■ Processor register- manipulates data
■ Register- holds memory location
- calculates the address of the next instruction after the execution of the
current instruction is completed.
CACHE MEMORY
• In computing, a cache is a component that stores data so that future requests for that
data can be served faster.
• It - (i) is small-sized
(ii) is a volatile computer memory
(iii) provides high-speed data access to a processor
(iv) stores frequently used computer programs, applications and data
(v) is the fastest memory in the computer.
• It is integrated onto the motherboard and directly embedded in the processor or RAM.
PRIMARY MEMORY

RAM ROM

PROM
DRAM
EPROM

EEPROM
SRAM
UVPROM
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)

Random access memory (RAM) is a type of data storage used in computers that
is generally located on the motherboard.
It is- (i) volatile in nature (when power goes off, stored information is lost).
(ii) part of the computer’s main memory.
(iii) directly accessible by the CPU.
(iv) stores data that is currently being processed by the CPU.
Integrated RAM chips are of two forms:

DRAM SRAM
DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS STATIC RANDOM ACCESS
MEMORY (DRAM) MEMORY (SRAM)

■ DRAM stores the binary ■ The SRAM memories consist of


information in the form of circuits capable for retaining the
electric charges that is applied stored information as long as the
to capacitors. power is applied.
■ The stored information on the ■ That means this type of memory
capacitors tend to lose over a requires constant power.
period of time and thus the
■ SRAM memories are used to
capacitors must be periodically
build Cache Memory.
recharged to retain their usage.
■ The main memory is generally
made up of DRAM chips.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A RAM CHIP
READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of storage medium that permanently stores


data on personal computers (PCs) and other electronic devices.
It- (i) contains the programming needed to start a PC, which is essential for
boot-up
(ii) it performs major input/output tasks and holds programs or software
instructions.
(iii) is permanent and non-volatile, meaning it also holds its memory even
when power is removed.

PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY (PROM)


ELECTRICALLY- ULTRAVIOLET-
ERASABLE ERASABLE ERASABLE
PROGRAMMABLE PROGRAMMABLE
READ ONLY PROGRAMMABLE
READ ONLY
MEMORY (EPROM) MEMORY READ ONLY
• This is programmed (EEPROM) MEMORY
with the use of very
• This is used in many
(UVEPROM)
high voltages and
exposure to older computer BIOS • This is read-only
chips memory that can be
approximately 20
minutes of intense • non-volatile storage erased by the use of
ultraviolet (UV) that can be erased and ultraviolet light and
light. programmed several then reprogrammed.
times
• It can be erased and
• allows only one location
re-used
at a time to be written
or erased.
SECONDARY MEMORY

MAGNETIC OPTICAL FLASH

FLOPPY DISK CD

PENDRIVE
HARD DISK DVD

BLURAY MEMORY CARD


MAGNETIC TAPES
HARD DISK
■ It is an electro-mechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store
and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks
(platters) coated with magnetic material.
■ Data is accessed in a random access manner, meaning that individual blocks of
data can be stored or retrieved in any order and not only sequentially.
■ It is a non-volatile storage, retaining stored data even when powered off.
DIGITAL VERSATILE
COMPACT DISK (CD) DISK (DVD)
■ It is a digital optical disk data ■ It is a digital optical disk storage format .
storage format. ■ The medium can store any kind of digital data
and is widely used for software and other
■ The format was originally developed computer files as well as video programs
to store and play only sound watched using DVD players.
recordings (CD-DA) but was later
adapted for storage of data (CD- ■ DVDs offer higher storage capacity
than compact discs while having the same
ROM). dimensions.
■ Several other formats were further ■ Pre-recorded DVDs are mass-produced
derived from these, including write- using moulding machines that physically
once audio and data storage (CD-R), stamp data onto the DVD. Such discs are a
rewritable media (CD-RW), Video form of DVD-ROM because data can only be
read and not written or erased.
Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video
Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, ■ Blank recordable DVD discs (DVD-R
Picture CD, CD-I , and Enhanced and DVD+R) can be recorded once using
Music CD. a DVD recorder and then function as a DVD-
ROM. Rewritable DVDs (DVD-RW, DVD+RW,
and DVD-RAM) can be recorded and erased
many times.
BY: GROUP NUMBER 06
MEMBERS
1. TIYAKSHIE NEGI
2. MEGHNA B PRASHEED
3. ANAMIKA SINGH