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Models for Design & Selection of Injection System

P M V Subbarao
Mechanical Engineering Department

Mathematical Tools for Sizing of Hard Ware As

per the Need….
Spray Formation

• Spray formation is explained as Breakup Mechanism,

described as:
• Stretching of fuel ligament into sheets or streams.
• Appearance of ripples and protuberances.
• Formation of small ligaments or holes in sheets.
• Collapse of ligaments or holes in sheets.
• Further breakup due to vibration of droplets.
• Agglomeration or shedding from large drops.
• The flow parameters of a jet:
• Jet Reynolds number
• Jet weber number
• Ohnesorge number
Spray Structure
Distribution of Droplets in A Spray
Distribution of Droplets in A Spray
Distribution of Droplets in A Spray
Sauter Mean Diameter

• The representative diameter is defined as Sauter mean

diameter (SMD).
• Introducing the definition of SMD:
 is the liquid surface tension,
L is the liquid viscosity,
A is the air density,
 L is the liquid density,
pL, is the injection pressure differential across the nozzle,
 is the half spray angle and
t is the film thickness, given by
where do is the discharge orifice
diameter and
FN is the nozzle flow number defined by
Post Break-up Kinematics

• After break-up, the fuel jet behaves as a gas jet and follows
the moment conservation law.
• jet centreline (um) is

According to the cylindrical free turbulent jet theory, the velocity

distribution at the jet cross-section is
where u is the velocity of fuel reaching the point (r, z).

ce is the entrainment factor.

The spray angle 

The velocity of the fuel zone reaching the point (, s) is

Penetration of Fuel Spray

• The spray penetration length and spray penetration rate from a

fuel injector are the parameters used to judge fuel spray
• The merits of high or low penetration largely depend on engine
design and geometry.
• Shorter spray penetration may be of an advantage where it
reduces fuel impingement, but in larger engines may inhibit
maximum air utilisation.
Influence of Injection Pressure on Spray Penetration
Length : HS Diesel
Influence of Ambient Pressure on Spray Penetration
Length : HS Diesel
Model to Design a Spray
SOI : 11o BTDC
Impingement of Spray

• After the fuel jet has impinged the opposite chamber wall,
the movement of the wall jet is complicated.
• Many experimental formulae have been suggested in the
design methodologies.
• One such formulae used to calculate the velocity of the
zone that has impinged on the wall :
Spray Velocity Distribution in A Two Hole Nozzle
Effect of Swirl
Spray Velocity Distribution in A Two Hole Nozzle
Effect of Swirl
Air entrainment and mixing
• The rate of air entrainment into each zone is calculated on
the basis of the momentum conservation principle.
• The rate of entrainment relates not only to the fuel but also
to the air–fuel ratio in the quiescent combustion chamber.
• It is observed that the rate of air entrainment increases with
the increase of air–fuel ratio in the cylinder.
• The entrainment factor ce is linearly related to the
equivalence air–fuel, .

Where a and b are constants for a certain engine type.

• u The relation takes some account of incomplete mixing for
low air–fuel ratios.
• The relationship given above also improves the predictive
ability of the model for transient operating conditions, for
which the air–fuel ratio is low and the fresh air in the
cylinder may be consumed by entrainment of fuel zones.
Idealized spray vaporization
• The spray is divided into an initial "cool” and "hot" zone.
• Within the cool zone, heat transfer is restricted to radiation
from the flame front to the droplet surface.
• In the hot zone, heat transfer takes place both by radiation
from the flame front and by turbulent convection.
• The reduction in droplet diameter due to vaporization
follows the "d2 law":

 
d d2
where  is the evaporation constant for forced convection.
The evaporation in forced convection
• The evaporation constant in forced convection

   0 1  0.276 Re 0.5
Sc 1/ 3

ln 1  B 
0 
 f cp
Where, k is the thermal conductivity of the gas,
Cp is the specific heat of the gas,
f is the density of the fuel and
B=the transfer number
c p T  T f  
1  QY0 
B 
h fg   

hfg = latent heat of vaporization per unit mass of fuel,

T= temperature of gas surrounding the droplet,
Tf= temperature of drop surface,
Q = heat of reaction,
Y0=mass fraction of oxidant in the surrounding atmosphere
 stoichiometric mixture ratio.
Ignition Delay

• The sum of times required for sub process.

• The most widely reported correlation relating the ignition
delay to the ambient gas condition is given by the relation

where τ is the ignition delay, Pg and Tg are the ambient gas mean
pressure and temperature before autoignition takes place,
A, B and n are experimental constants.
Arhenius-type equation for Ignition Delay

• An Arhenius type equation for Ignition delay is:

 pcyl   6000 
 id  4.0 10  3
  1.04
g exp  
 pref   T 

 p   6000 
 id  18 2  exp  
 cyl 
p  T 

p :Premixed air fuel ratio.

Symptoms to be Sensed to Predict Auto Ignition
Effect of Gas Temperature on Ignition Delay
Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay
The flammability limits versus the number of carbon
atoms in alkanes
Development of Injection Pressure & Injection
System in CI Engines
Fuel Injection System
• The fuel is to be introduced into the cylinder of a diesel engine
through a nozzle with a large pressure differential across the
nozzle orifice.
• The cylinder pressure at injection is typically in the range of 50
to 100 atm.
• Fuel injection pressures in the range of 200 to 1700 atm are
used depending on the engine size and type of combustion
system employed.
• These large pressure differences across the injector nozzle are
required so that the injected liquid fuel jet will enter the
chamber at sufficiently high velocity to
• Atomize into small-sized droplets to enable rapid evaporation
• Traverse the combustion chamber in the time available and fully
utilize the air charge.
European Standards
Types of CI Engine Injection Systems
• Fuel-Injection Systems
• Unit Injector System (UIS) – Single-Cylinder CI Engine.
• Unit Pump System (UPS) – Multi-cylinder CI Engine.
• Common Rail Injection System (CRS) – Multi-cylinder CI
• The Unit Injector System (UIS) and the Unit Pump System (UPS)
are among the most significant innovations in this field.
• They inject precisely the right amount of fuel individually into
each cylinder, at very high pressure, and at exactly the right
moment in time.
• This results in considerably more efficient combustion than is the
case with conventional injection systems.
• This, in turn, equates to higher output, less fuel consumption, and
lower levels of noise and exhaust-gas emissions.
Unit Injector System
Functional Principle of Modern Unit Injection
Actuation of Solenoid Valve
Actuation of Injector Nozzle
Unit Pump Diesel Injection System
Common Rail Diesel Injection System

The Common Rail Diesel Injection System delivers a more controlled

quantity of atomised fuel, which leads to better fuel economy; a
reduction in exhaust emissions; and a significant decrease in engine
noise during operation.
Common rail diesel injection system

• In the Common Rail system, an accumulator, or rail, is

used to create a common reservoir of fuel under a
consistent controlled pressure that is separate from the fuel
injection points.
• A high-pressure pump increases the fuel pressure in the
accumulator up to 1,600 bar .
• The pressure is set by the engine control unit and is
independent of the engine speed and quantity of fuel being
injected into any of the cylinders.
• The fuel is then transferred through rigid pipes to the fuel
injectors, which inject the correct amount of fuel into the
combustion chambers.
Injectors for CRDI

• The injectors used in Common Rail systems are triggered

externally by an Electronic Diesel Control, or EDC unit.
• EDC controls all the engine injection parameters including the
pressure in the fuel rail and the timing and duration of injection.
• Diesel fuel injectors used in Common Rail injection systems
operate differently to conventional fuel injectors used in the jerk
pump system.
• Some common rail injectors are controlled by a magnetic
solenoid on the injector.
• Hydraulic force from the pressure in the system is used to open
and close the injector, but the available pressure is controlled by
the solenoid triggered by the Electronic Diesel Control unit.
• Some injectors use Piezo crystal wafers to actuate the
• These crystals expand rapidly when connected to an
electric field.
• In a Piezo inline injector, the actuator is built into the
injector body very close to the jet needle and uses no
mechanical parts to switch injector needles.
• The electronic diesel control unit precisely meters the
amount of fuel injected, and improves atomization of the
fuel by controlling the injector pulsations.
• This results in quieter, more fuel efficient engines; cleaner
operation; and more power output.