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# Fluid Pressure Measuring Devices.

Prepared By:

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, CECOS University, Peshawar.

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Contents:
• What is Pressure?

• Pressure Measurement.

## • Pressure Measuring Devices.

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Objective:
We will be discussing different pressure measuring devices.
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Introduction:
• What is Pressure?

• Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

## • In SI base units: 1 N/m2, 1 kg/(m·s2)

• Common symbols: p, P

## • Dimension: M L-1 T-2

• SI unit: Pascal
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Pressure Measurement:
A pressure measurement can be described as either static or dynamic.

##  Pressure measurement methods:

• A pressure measurement can further be described by the type of measurement being performed.

## • The three methods for measuring pressure are:

1. Absolute

2. Gauge

3. Differential.
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Continue:
• Absolute pressure: This is the difference between the pressure of the fluid and the pressure of
absolute vacuum.

• Gauge pressure: This is the difference between the pressure of a fluid and atmospheric pressure.
Thus, gauge pressure varies as the atmospheric pressure changes and is therefore not a fixed
quantity.

• Differential pressure: This term is used to describe the difference between two absolute pressure
values, such as the pressures at two different points within the same fluid.
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## Pressure Measurement Devices:

 List of Pressure Measuring Devices

1. The Barometer

3. Manometer

## 5. The Diaphragm Pressure Gauge

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The Barometer:
 What is a Barometer?

• An instrument measuring atmospheric pressure (the weight of the air in the atmosphere)

##  What its used for?

• A barometer is used to help forecast the weather by measuring atmospheric pressure, or air
pressure. It measures the change in atmospheric pressure.
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Continue..
 How it works?

• The barometer works by balancing the weight of mercury in the tube against the atmospheric
pressure.

1. Water

2. Air

3. Mercury
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## History of The Barometer:

• In 1643 Evangelista Torricelli invented the barometer.

## • He used a vacuum to compare ever-present atmospheric pressure with zero pressure.

• The word “baros” means weight in Greek and the word “metron” meaning measure.

• The barometer used the principal of a vaccum to measure the weight of the air.
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The Barometer:
• A typical barometer consists of a glass tube with opened and closed ends.

• The tube filled with mercury is fixed upside down in a reservoir containing mercury and a ruler is placed

## alongside the tube.

• A vacuum is created at the top when the mercury level in the glass tube falls.

• The barometer is operated by balancing mercury weight in the glass tube over the weight of atmospheric

pressure.
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Continue…
• The mercury level in the glass tube increases, if the weight of mercury is less than the atmospheric pressure.

• The mercury level decreases if the weight of mercury is greater than the atmospheric pressure.

• However, the mercury level is subjected to change constantly till the weight of the mercury in the tube is
equal to the weight of the air above the reservoir. The rising and falling of mercury level can be measured
using the ruler, and thus recording the changes with time.
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Continue:
• The function of a barometer is to let you know whether or not atmospheric pressure is rising or falling.

• They are essential tools for weather forecasters and scientists when it comes to understanding the nature of
storms or predicting changes in weather.
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Pressure Tube:
 What is Piezometer?

• An instrument for measuring the pressure of a liquid or gas, or something related to pressure (such as the
compressibility of liquid)

• Piezometers are often placed in boreholes to monitor the pressure or depth of groundwater.

 The Criteria:

## • Must be open to water flow at bottom and open to atmosphere at top.

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Uses of Piezometers:
• The piezometer, also known as pore pressure meter, is used to measure pore water pressure in soil,
earth/rock fills, foundations and concrete structures.

## • Piezometers are commonly used in special wells.

• They can also be drilled or hammered into the soil to explore conditions close to the surface.
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Piezometer or Pressure Tube:

## • Piezometer is one of the simplest forms of manometers

 A simple manometer:

• A simple manometer is one which consists of a glass tube, whose one end is connected to a point where pressure is to be
measured and the other end is open to atmosphere.

## • It can be used for measuring moderate pressures of liquids.

• The setup of piezometer consists of a glass tube, inserted in the wall of a vessel or of a pipe or ground.

• The tube extends vertically upward to such a height that liquid can freely rise in it without overflowing.

• The pressure at any point in the liquid is indicated by the height of the liquid in the tube above that point.

## • A piezometer is designed to measure static pressures.

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Continue:
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The Manometer:
 What is Manometer?

• An instrument for measuring the pressure acting on a column of fluid, consisting of a U-shaped tube of liquid
in which a difference in the pressures acting in the two arms of the tube causes the liquid to reach different
heights in the two arms.
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Uses:
• It is used to measure pressure or vacuum of a gas (and perhaps liquid)

• The first use that comes to mind is when a domestic gas engineer repairs a boiler.

• They use a manometer to check the pressure is as expected and that they haven’t introduced a gas leak.
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Manometer:
• A U-tube manometer, one end is connected to the pressure source; the other is open to atmosphere, The
liquid in the tube may be water or mercury and it will be positioned.

• The excess of pressure above atmospheric pressure will be shown as the difference in liquid levels; this
instrument therefore measures gauge pressure.

• It is usually used for low value pressure readings such as air pressures.

• Where two different system pressures are applied, this instrument will measure differential pressure.

• U-tube manometers are used for measuring differences between two pressures. In many cases, one of the
pressures is a vacuum (zero pressure).
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## The Bourdon Guage:

• What is Bourdon Gauge?

• A pressure gauge employing a coiled metallic tube which tends to straighten out when pressure is exerted
within it.

• The Bourdon tube is the namesake of Eugéne Bourdon, a French watchmaker and engineer who invented
the Bourdon gauge in 1849.

• Over the years, the Bourdon tube has entrenched itself as the elastic element in most pressure gauges in
application today.

• The Bourdon pressure gauge operates on the principle that, when pressurized, a flattened tube tends to
straighten or regain its circular form in cross-section.
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Continue:
 Working Principle:

• When an elastic transducer ( bourdon tube in this case ) is subjected to a pressure, it defects. This deflection
is proportional to the applied pressure when calibrated.
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## The Bourdon Gauge:

• This device consists of a metallic tube of elliptical section closed at one end A, the other end B being fitted to
the gauge point where the pressure is to be measured, As the fluid enters the tube, the tube tends to
straighten.

• By using a pinion-sector arrangement the small elastic deformation of the tube is communicated to a pointer
in an amplified manner, The pointer moves over a graduated dial.

## • The device is calibrated by subjecting it to various known pressures.

• The Bourdon gauge is suitable for measuring not only high pressures such as those in a steam boiler or a
water main but also negative or vacuum pressures.

• A gauge which is so devised to measure positive as well as negative pressures is called a compound gauge.
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• These Bourdon tube pressure gauges give accurate results.

## • Accuracy is high especially at high pressures.

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Limitations:
• They respond slowly to changes in pressure.

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## The Diaphragm Pressure Guage:

 What is Diaphragm Pressure Gauge?

## • Diaphragm is a elastic material which displaces, when it is applied to pressure.

• The Diaphragm Pressure Gauge uses the elastic deformation of a diaphragm (i.e. membrane) instead of a
liquid level to measure the difference between an unknown pressure and a reference pressure.
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The Diaphragm Pressure Gauge:

• This device is based on the same principle as that of the Bourdon gauge.

## • In this case a corrugated diaphragm is provided instead of the Bourdon tube.

• When the device is fitted to any gauge point, the diaphragm will undergo an elastic deformation.

• This deformation is communicated to a pointer which moves on a graduated scale indicating the pressure.

• It may be noted that this device works on the same principle as that of the aneroid barometer.

Thank you 