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Welcome

Process Control
Department of IAC, Lean Institute of Technology
Course: PGDIAC-1909
Instructor: Jamal Safdar
https://www.lit.leanautomation.com/Courses/PGDIAC

10/11/2019© Lean Institute of Technology BAT-01 PGDIAC-1909


What we’ll cover this morning

• Control History
• Basic Measurement Definitions
• Performance terms and specifications
• P&ID symbols
• Typical Applications
• Basic Control Concepts

10/11/2019 © Lean Institute of Technology


PGDIAC-1909
Why Process Control
• Enhanced Process Safety
• Satisfying environment constraints
• Meeting ever stricter product quality specification
• More efficient use of raw material and energy
• Increased profitability
Control Systems

Used to maintain process conditions at their desired values by


manipulating certain variables to adjust the variable of interest.
Control History
• Early development of feedback control by James Watt in Scotland
using a governor on a steam engine in about 1775.
• Broader use of automatic control began to be made in the late
1920’s and the first general, theoretical, treatment of automatic
control was published in 1932.
• New technologies have created a transformation in control
engineering with the advent of DCS and PLC systems.
• The theory of automatic control has also developed in parallel with
these new technologies.
AN EXAMPLE OF WATTS STEAM GOVERNOR
Applications

A TYPICAL HOME HEATING SYSTEM


INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROL VALVES IN THE
OVERALL CONTROL SYSTEM
EXAMPLE - PROCESS FLOW CONTROL
Basic Control Concepts
Elements of Process Control Systems
• A control loop is a self-contained system
• Purpose is to maintain a process at a given value
• Usually consists of a transmitter for measurement
• A controller to evaluate
• A control valve which can be changed by the controller
Basic Control
• For each controlled variable the control system operator selects a
manipulated variable which can be paired with a controlled variable
• Often the choice is obvious, such as manipulating the flow of fuel to a
home furnace to control the temperature of a house
• Sometimes the choice is not so obvious and can only be determined
by someone who understands the process under control
• The pairing of manipulated and controlled variables is performed as
part of the process
Variable Involved
There are three main terms to consider
1. Controlled Quantities/Variables
2. Manipulated Quantities/Variables
3. Disturbances
Controlled Quantities

• Also referred to as Controlled Variables


• These are the streams or conditions which the operator wishes to
control or maintain at some level
• Controlled variables include such parameters as temperature, pH,
moisture, level, position, flow weight and speed etc.
• For each controlled variable, there must be a desired value known as
a SET-POINT or reference value
Manipulated Quantities

• For each controlled variable there is a manipulated variable such as a


flow rate
• This manipulated variable is usually controlled through the use of a
control valve
Disturbance
• Disturbances enter the process and cause a change away from the
set-point
• Typical disturbances include change in temperature or pressure or
feed-stock
• The automatic control system must therefore alter the manipulated
variable so that the set point is maintained in spite of these
disturbances
• Also, the set point may be moved, in which case the manipulated
variable will need to be changed to adjust the process to the new
value
Elements of Process Control System
There are four essential elements in any process control system:
1. Process
2. Measurement
3. Evaluation
4. Control
Process
• In general, a process is an assembly of equipment and material and
is related to some manufacturing operation or sequence
• In the case of a tank with a liquid, the level of this liquid is
influenced by the flow into and out of the tank.
• Any given process can involve dynamic variables and it may be
desirable to control all of them
• In most cases, controlling one variable would be sufficient to control
the process within acceptable limits
Measurement

To control any process it first has to be measured

• Measurement means the conversion of a process variable into an


analogue or digital signal by means of a sensor or transmitter or
both.
• The result of any measurement is the conversion of a dynamic
variable into some proportional information which is required by
some other elements in the process control loop or sequence.
Evaluation
• In the evaluation step of a process control sequence, the
measurement is examined and compared with the desired value or
set-point.
• The amount of corrective action required to maintain proper control
is determined.
• A controller is used for this evaluation. This controller can be
pneumatic, mechanical or electronic and would be mounted in a
panel.
• It can also be part of a computer control system, in which case the
control function is performed by software.
Control

• The control element in a control loop has the most direct effect on
the process.
• Receives a signal from the controller and transforms this to a
proportional operation which is performed on the process.
• In most cases, the final element is a control valve which adjusts a
flow in a pipeline.
• Other final elements include: electrical motors, pumps and dampers.
Control (continued)
• In a typical home heating system, the controlled variable is the room
temperature.
• A number of disturbances cause the room temperature to vary, e.g.,
outside ambient temp., the number of people in the room or the
activity taking place inside the room.
• The automatic control system is designed to manipulate the fuel flow
to the furnace in order to maintain room temperature at the desired
set-point.
• Note: Temperature is being controlled and flow rate is being varied.
P, PI, PD, PID Controller
Time Domain
P PI PD PID
Kp Kp +KI⌠dt Kp + KD d/dt Kp +KI⌠dt + KD d/dt

Frequency Domain
P PI PD PID
Kp Kp +KI /s Kp + KD S Kp +KI/S + KD S
Problems
P PI PD PID
Offset Slow Response Offset

Advantages
P PI PD PID
Can control speed Improved damping Decrease max peek Kp = Decrease rise
of controller Zero offset over time.
Reduce rise and KI = Eliminate SS
settling time error
Kd = Decrease
settling time
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Only Control


Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control
• A better system is required to overcome the sudden
changes of ON – OFF control.
• The lack of precise control suggests that an
alternative approach is required.
• Proportional Control initiates a corrective action
which is proportional to the change in error or
deviation of the process from the set-point.
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control
Proportional Gain
 In electronic controllers, the proportional action is
typically expressed as proportional GAIN.
 Proportional Gain answers the question “What is the
percentage change of the controller output, relative
to the percentage change in controller input?”
 Proportional Gain is expressed as
Gain (Kc) = ∆ Output % / ∆ Input %
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control
Proportional Band

 Proportional Band (PB) is another way of representing


the same information and answers the question
“What percentage of change of the controller input
span will cause a 100% change in controller output?”
 PB is expressed as
∆ Input (% span) for 100% ∆ Output
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT GAIN SETTINGS


Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

 Proportional action is limited in the sense that


the control action only responds to a change in
the magnitude of the error
 Proportional action will not return the PV to
the SP. It will however, return the PV to a value
which is within a defined span (PB) around the
PV
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

PROCESS RESPONSES WITH PROPORTIONAL CONTROL


Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus Integral


Control
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus Integral Control


• It would be an improvement if the controller adjusts the
controller to eliminate off-set.
• It would also be an advantage to have the controller
respond at a speed proportional to the size of the error.
• This added control function is called reset or integral
(reset is the older term).
• This function also eliminates the offset.
• Shortened to P + I
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus Integral Control


• If we assume a step change in set- point at some point in
time.
• Initially there is a sudden change in in valve due to
proportional action (equal to Kc x e).
• At the same time, the integral portion of the controller,
sensing an error, begins to move the valve at a rate,
proportional to the error, over time.
• If the error is constant, the correction rate will also be
constant.
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus Integral Control

APPLICATION OF RESET ACTION


Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus Integral Control


• When time is used to express integral or reset action,
it is called ”reset time”.
• Quite commonly, the reciprocal is used in which case
it is called “reset rate” in “repeats per minute”.
• This term refers to the number of times per minute
that the reset action is repeating the valve change
produced by proportional action alone.
• Process control systems personnel refer to reset time
as integral time and denote it by the symbol “Ti”.
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus Integral Control

 The P + I controller includes the characteristic of the I


controller.
 This allows the advantages of both controller types to
be combined, fast reaction and compensation of the
remaining system deviation.
 For this reason, the P + I controller can be used for a
large number of control applications.
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus Integral Control

 I addition to proportional gain, the P + I controller has a


further recognizable value which indicates the behavior
of the I component – the reset time (integral action
time)
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus
Derivative Control
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Proportional plus Derivative Control

• A further function can be added in the form of rate or


derivative control.
• This control function produces a corrective action
which is proportional to the rate of change of error.
• It should be noted that this correction only exists while
the error is changing, it disappears when the error stops
changing, even though there may still be a large error.
• Commonly referred to as P + D control.
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Proportional plus Derivative Control
 Some large and / or slow processes do not respond well
to small changes in controller output.
 For example, a large thermal process, such as a heat
exchanger, may react very slowly to a small change in
controller output.
 To improve response, a large initial change in
controller output may be applied.
 This is the function of the derivative mode.
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Proportional plus Derivative Control

• If we assume, the set point is changing at a constant


rate.
• Derivative action contributes an immediate valve
change which is proportional to the rate of change of
the error.
• This would be equal to the slope of the set-point line
(the error).
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Proportional plus Derivative Control

• As the error increases, the proportional function


contributes additional control valve movement.
• At a later stage, the contribution of proportional
action will have equaled the initial contribution of the
rate action.
• This is called derivative time td.
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Proportional plus Derivative Control

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVE ACTION


Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Proportional plus Derivative Control
Summary
 Derivative (Rate) action is a function of the speed of
change of the error.
 The units are expressed in minutes.
 The action is to apply an immediate response which is
equal to the proportional plus reset action that would
have occurred some number of minutes in the future.
 The advantage of a rapid output is that it reduces the
time which is required to return the PV to the SP in a
slow process.
Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus Integral plus


Derivative Control
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control


• Deciding which control action is required for a particular
application depends on the characteristics of the process
being controlled.
• PID control should NOT be used for “noisy” processes or
on one which has stepwise changes because the
derivative action is based on the measurement of rate of
change. This could lead to unstable control.
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL

• PID control is used on processes which respond slowly.


• Temperature control is a common example of PID
control. The derivative action shortens the time taken
for the process to respond.
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control
 In addition to the properties of the P + I controller, the
PID controller is complemented by the D component.
 This takes the rate of change of the system into
account.
 If the system deviation is large, the D component
ensures a momentary high change in the manipulated
variable.
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control

 While the influence of the D component falls off


immediately, the influence of the I component
increases slowly.
 If the change in system deviation is slight, the response
of the D component is negligible.
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control

 This behaviour has the advantage of faster and more


accurate compensation of system deviation in the
event of changes or disturbance variables.
 The disadvantage is that the control loop is much more
prone to oscillation and that optimum tuning is
therefore more difficult.
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Summary
Basic Control Concepts
THREE TERM CONTROL
Summary
Feedback Control
THE SIMPLEST WAY TO AUTOMATE THE CONTROL OF A PROCESS IS
THROUGH FEEDBACK CONTROL.
• Sensors are used to measure the actual value of the controlled
variable
• This value is transmitted to the feedback controller
• The controller makes a comparison between this measurement
and the desired value which has already been established.
• Based on the difference (error) between these two values, the
controller sends a proportional output to the control value.
FEEDBACK CONTROL CONCEPT
ADVANTAGES OF FEEDBACK CONTROL
• It is not essential to know what disturbances will affect the process
• Also, the relationship between the final control element and the
process is not an issue
• Standard hardware can be used for almost any application
• The principles of feedback control apply to all types of process
control instrumentation.
• Traditional, stand-alone feedback controllers offer the simplest
approach to automatic control.
Modes of Control
TOPICS

Stability
Ultimate Gain
Tuning Methods
Ratio Control
Cascade Control
Application Examples
Modes of Control

Stability
Modes of Control
STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

 One of the characteristics of feedback control loops is


that they may become unstable.
 The loop is said to be unstable when a small change in
disturbance or set point causes the system to deviate
widely from its normal operating point.
Modes of Control
STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

 The two possible causes of instability are that the


controller has the incorrect action or it is tuned two
tightly, that is, the gain is too high, the integral time is
too small, the derivative time is too high, or a
combination of all of these.
 Another possible cause is that the process is inherently
unstable, but this is rare.
Modes of Control
STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

 When the controller has the incorrect action, instability


can be recognized by the controller output “running
away” to either its upper or its lower limit.
 In this case, a small increase in the process variable
would result in an opening of the steam valve, which in
turn would increase the temperature further, and the
cycle would continue until the controller output
reached its maximum with the steam valve fully
opened.
Modes of Control
STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

 On the other hand, a small decrease in PV would result


in a closing of the steam valve, which would further
reduce the temperature, and the cycle would continue
until the controller output is at its minimum point with
the steam valve fully closed.
 Thus, for a loop to be stable, the controller action
must be “increasing measurement decreases output.”
This is known as reverse action.
Modes of Control
STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP
 When the controller is tuned too tightly, instability can
be recognised by observing that the signals in the loop
oscillate and the amplitude of the oscillations increases
with time.
 The reason for this type of instability is that the tightly
tuned controller overcorrects for the error and,
because of the delays and lags around the loop, the
over-corrections are not detected by the controller
until some time later.
 This causes a larger error in the opposite direction and
further over-correction. If this is allowed to continue
the controller output will end up oscillating between its
upper and lower limits.
Modes of Control

RESPONSE OF UNSTABLE FEEDBACK CONTROL LOOP


Modes of Control
STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

 As pointed out earlier, the oscillatory type of instability


is caused by the controller having too high a gain, too
fast an integral time, too high a derivative time, or a
combination of all of these.
 This is a good point to introduce the simplest method
for characterizing the process in order to tune the
controller, determining the ultimate gain and period of
oscillation of the loop.
Modes of Control

Ultimate Gain
Modes of Control
DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

 The earliest published method for characterizing the


process for controller tuning was proposed by J. G.
Ziegler and N. B. Nichols.
 The ultimate gain is the gain of a proportional
controller at which the loop oscillates with constant
amplitude, and is a measure of the controllability of
the loop; that is, the higher the ultimate gain, the
easier it is to control the loop.
Modes of Control
DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

 The ultimate period is the period of the oscillations and


is, in turn, a measure of the speed of response of the
loop. That is, the longer the period, the slower the
loop.
 Because this method of characterizing a process must
be performed with the feedback loop closed, that is,
with the controller in "Automatic Mode" it is also known
as the "closed-loop method."
Modes of Control
DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

 It follows from the definition of the ultimate gain that


it is the gain at which the loop is at the threshold of
instability.
 At gains just below the ultimate the loop signals will
oscillate with decreasing amplitude, while at gains
above the ultimate the amplitude of the oscillations
will increase with time.
 When determining the ultimate gain of an actual
feedback control loop, it is therefore very important to
ensure that it is not exceeded by much, or the system
will become violently unstable.
Modes of Control
DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

The procedure for determining the ultimate gain and


period is carried out with the controller in "Auto" and
with the integral and derivative modes removed. It is as
follows:
1. Remove the integral mode by setting the integral time
to its highest value. Alternatively, if the controller
model or program allows the integral mode to be
switched off, then do so.
2. Switch off the derivative mode or set the derivative
time to its lowest value, usually zero.
Modes of Control
DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

3. Carefully increase the proportional gain in steps.


After each increase, disturb the loop by introducing a
small step change in the set point, and observe the
response of the controlled and manipulated variables,
preferably on a trend recorder. The variables should
start oscillating as the gain is increased.
4. When the amplitude of the oscillations remains
constant (or approximately constant) from one
oscillation to the next, the ultimate controller gain has
been reached. Record it as Kcu.
Modes of Control
DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

5. Measure the period of the oscillations using the trend


recordings, as shown, or a stopwatch. For better
accuracy, time several oscillations and calculate the
average period. In the example shown, the time
required for five oscillations is measured and then
divided by five.
6. Stop the oscillations by reducing the gain to about half
of the ultimate.
Modes of Control
DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

DETERMINATION OF ULTIMATE PERIOD


Modes of Control

Tuning Methods
Modes of Control
TUNING FOR QUARTER DECAY RESPONSE
 Ziegler and Nichols also proposed that the ultimate gain
and period be used to tune the controller for a specific
response, that is, the quarter-decay ratio response, or
QDR, for short.
 The next slide illustrates the QDR response for a step
change in disturbance and for a step change in set point.
Its characteristic is that each oscillation has an amplitude
that is one fourth that of the previous oscillation.
 For reference, a table is given which summarizes the
formulas proposed by Ziegler and Nichols for calculating
the QDR tuning parameters of P, PI, and PID controllers
from the ultimate gain Kcu and period Tu.
Modes of Control

QUARTER DECAY RESPONSES TO DISTURBANCE


AND SET POINT
Modes of Control
TUNING FOR QUARTER DECAY RESPONSE

Quarter-Decay Ratio Tuning Formulas

THIS IS A MAJOR REFERENCE


Modes of Control
TUNING FOR QUARTER DECAY RESPONSE

 Notice that the addition of integral mode results in a


reduction of 10 percent in the QDR gain between the P
and the PI controller tuning formulas. This is due to the
additional lag introduced by the integral mode.
 On the other hand, the addition of the derivative mode
allows the controller gain to increase by 20 percent
over the proportional controller. Therein lies the
justification for the derivative mode, the increase in
the controllability of the loop.
Modes of Control
TUNING FOR QUARTER DECAY RESPONSE

 Finally, the derivative and integral times in the series


PID controller formulas show a ratio of 1:4. This is a
useful relationship to keep in mind when tuning PID
controllers by trial and error, that is, in those cases
when the ultimate gain and period cannot be
determined.