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Process Control

Department of IAC, Lean Institute of Technology

Course: PGDIAC-1909

Instructor: Jamal Safdar

https://www.lit.leanautomation.com/Courses/PGDIAC

What we’ll cover this morning

• Control History

• Basic Measurement Definitions

• Performance terms and specifications

• P&ID symbols

• Typical Applications

• Basic Control Concepts

PGDIAC-1909

Why Process Control

• Enhanced Process Safety

• Satisfying environment constraints

• Meeting ever stricter product quality specification

• More efficient use of raw material and energy

• Increased profitability

Control Systems

manipulating certain variables to adjust the variable of interest.

Control History

• Early development of feedback control by James Watt in Scotland

using a governor on a steam engine in about 1775.

• Broader use of automatic control began to be made in the late

1920’s and the first general, theoretical, treatment of automatic

control was published in 1932.

• New technologies have created a transformation in control

engineering with the advent of DCS and PLC systems.

• The theory of automatic control has also developed in parallel with

these new technologies.

AN EXAMPLE OF WATTS STEAM GOVERNOR

Applications

INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROL VALVES IN THE

OVERALL CONTROL SYSTEM

EXAMPLE - PROCESS FLOW CONTROL

Basic Control Concepts

Elements of Process Control Systems

• A control loop is a self-contained system

• Purpose is to maintain a process at a given value

• Usually consists of a transmitter for measurement

• A controller to evaluate

• A control valve which can be changed by the controller

Basic Control

• For each controlled variable the control system operator selects a

manipulated variable which can be paired with a controlled variable

• Often the choice is obvious, such as manipulating the flow of fuel to a

home furnace to control the temperature of a house

• Sometimes the choice is not so obvious and can only be determined

by someone who understands the process under control

• The pairing of manipulated and controlled variables is performed as

part of the process

Variable Involved

There are three main terms to consider

1. Controlled Quantities/Variables

2. Manipulated Quantities/Variables

3. Disturbances

Controlled Quantities

• These are the streams or conditions which the operator wishes to

control or maintain at some level

• Controlled variables include such parameters as temperature, pH,

moisture, level, position, flow weight and speed etc.

• For each controlled variable, there must be a desired value known as

a SET-POINT or reference value

Manipulated Quantities

flow rate

• This manipulated variable is usually controlled through the use of a

control valve

Disturbance

• Disturbances enter the process and cause a change away from the

set-point

• Typical disturbances include change in temperature or pressure or

feed-stock

• The automatic control system must therefore alter the manipulated

variable so that the set point is maintained in spite of these

disturbances

• Also, the set point may be moved, in which case the manipulated

variable will need to be changed to adjust the process to the new

value

Elements of Process Control System

There are four essential elements in any process control system:

1. Process

2. Measurement

3. Evaluation

4. Control

Process

• In general, a process is an assembly of equipment and material and

is related to some manufacturing operation or sequence

• In the case of a tank with a liquid, the level of this liquid is

influenced by the flow into and out of the tank.

• Any given process can involve dynamic variables and it may be

desirable to control all of them

• In most cases, controlling one variable would be sufficient to control

the process within acceptable limits

Measurement

analogue or digital signal by means of a sensor or transmitter or

both.

• The result of any measurement is the conversion of a dynamic

variable into some proportional information which is required by

some other elements in the process control loop or sequence.

Evaluation

• In the evaluation step of a process control sequence, the

measurement is examined and compared with the desired value or

set-point.

• The amount of corrective action required to maintain proper control

is determined.

• A controller is used for this evaluation. This controller can be

pneumatic, mechanical or electronic and would be mounted in a

panel.

• It can also be part of a computer control system, in which case the

control function is performed by software.

Control

• The control element in a control loop has the most direct effect on

the process.

• Receives a signal from the controller and transforms this to a

proportional operation which is performed on the process.

• In most cases, the final element is a control valve which adjusts a

flow in a pipeline.

• Other final elements include: electrical motors, pumps and dampers.

Control (continued)

• In a typical home heating system, the controlled variable is the room

temperature.

• A number of disturbances cause the room temperature to vary, e.g.,

outside ambient temp., the number of people in the room or the

activity taking place inside the room.

• The automatic control system is designed to manipulate the fuel flow

to the furnace in order to maintain room temperature at the desired

set-point.

• Note: Temperature is being controlled and flow rate is being varied.

P, PI, PD, PID Controller

Time Domain

P PI PD PID

Kp Kp +KI⌠dt Kp + KD d/dt Kp +KI⌠dt + KD d/dt

Frequency Domain

P PI PD PID

Kp Kp +KI /s Kp + KD S Kp +KI/S + KD S

Problems

P PI PD PID

Offset Slow Response Offset

Advantages

P PI PD PID

Can control speed Improved damping Decrease max peek Kp = Decrease rise

of controller Zero offset over time.

Reduce rise and KI = Eliminate SS

settling time error

Kd = Decrease

settling time

Basic Control Concepts

Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

• A better system is required to overcome the sudden

changes of ON – OFF control.

• The lack of precise control suggests that an

alternative approach is required.

• Proportional Control initiates a corrective action

which is proportional to the change in error or

deviation of the process from the set-point.

Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

Proportional Gain

In electronic controllers, the proportional action is

typically expressed as proportional GAIN.

Proportional Gain answers the question “What is the

percentage change of the controller output, relative

to the percentage change in controller input?”

Proportional Gain is expressed as

Gain (Kc) = ∆ Output % / ∆ Input %

Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

Proportional Band

the same information and answers the question

“What percentage of change of the controller input

span will cause a 100% change in controller output?”

PB is expressed as

∆ Input (% span) for 100% ∆ Output

Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

the control action only responds to a change in

the magnitude of the error

Proportional action will not return the PV to

the SP. It will however, return the PV to a value

which is within a defined span (PB) around the

PV

Basic Control Concepts

Proportional Control

Basic Control Concepts

Control

Basic Control Concepts

• It would be an improvement if the controller adjusts the

controller to eliminate off-set.

• It would also be an advantage to have the controller

respond at a speed proportional to the size of the error.

• This added control function is called reset or integral

(reset is the older term).

• This function also eliminates the offset.

• Shortened to P + I

Basic Control Concepts

• If we assume a step change in set- point at some point in

time.

• Initially there is a sudden change in in valve due to

proportional action (equal to Kc x e).

• At the same time, the integral portion of the controller,

sensing an error, begins to move the valve at a rate,

proportional to the error, over time.

• If the error is constant, the correction rate will also be

constant.

Basic Control Concepts

Basic Control Concepts

• When time is used to express integral or reset action,

it is called ”reset time”.

• Quite commonly, the reciprocal is used in which case

it is called “reset rate” in “repeats per minute”.

• This term refers to the number of times per minute

that the reset action is repeating the valve change

produced by proportional action alone.

• Process control systems personnel refer to reset time

as integral time and denote it by the symbol “Ti”.

Basic Control Concepts

controller.

This allows the advantages of both controller types to

be combined, fast reaction and compensation of the

remaining system deviation.

For this reason, the P + I controller can be used for a

large number of control applications.

Basic Control Concepts

further recognizable value which indicates the behavior

of the I component – the reset time (integral action

time)

Basic Control Concepts

Proportional plus

Derivative Control

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Derivative Control

derivative control.

• This control function produces a corrective action

which is proportional to the rate of change of error.

• It should be noted that this correction only exists while

the error is changing, it disappears when the error stops

changing, even though there may still be a large error.

• Commonly referred to as P + D control.

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Derivative Control

Some large and / or slow processes do not respond well

to small changes in controller output.

For example, a large thermal process, such as a heat

exchanger, may react very slowly to a small change in

controller output.

To improve response, a large initial change in

controller output may be applied.

This is the function of the derivative mode.

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Derivative Control

rate.

• Derivative action contributes an immediate valve

change which is proportional to the rate of change of

the error.

• This would be equal to the slope of the set-point line

(the error).

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Derivative Control

contributes additional control valve movement.

• At a later stage, the contribution of proportional

action will have equaled the initial contribution of the

rate action.

• This is called derivative time td.

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Derivative Control

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Derivative Control

Summary

Derivative (Rate) action is a function of the speed of

change of the error.

The units are expressed in minutes.

The action is to apply an immediate response which is

equal to the proportional plus reset action that would

have occurred some number of minutes in the future.

The advantage of a rapid output is that it reduces the

time which is required to return the PV to the SP in a

slow process.

Basic Control Concepts

Derivative Control

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

• Deciding which control action is required for a particular

application depends on the characteristics of the process

being controlled.

• PID control should NOT be used for “noisy” processes or

on one which has stepwise changes because the

derivative action is based on the measurement of rate of

change. This could lead to unstable control.

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

• Temperature control is a common example of PID

control. The derivative action shortens the time taken

for the process to respond.

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control

In addition to the properties of the P + I controller, the

PID controller is complemented by the D component.

This takes the rate of change of the system into

account.

If the system deviation is large, the D component

ensures a momentary high change in the manipulated

variable.

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control

immediately, the influence of the I component

increases slowly.

If the change in system deviation is slight, the response

of the D component is negligible.

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control

accurate compensation of system deviation in the

event of changes or disturbance variables.

The disadvantage is that the control loop is much more

prone to oscillation and that optimum tuning is

therefore more difficult.

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Summary

Basic Control Concepts

THREE TERM CONTROL

Summary

Feedback Control

THE SIMPLEST WAY TO AUTOMATE THE CONTROL OF A PROCESS IS

THROUGH FEEDBACK CONTROL.

• Sensors are used to measure the actual value of the controlled

variable

• This value is transmitted to the feedback controller

• The controller makes a comparison between this measurement

and the desired value which has already been established.

• Based on the difference (error) between these two values, the

controller sends a proportional output to the control value.

FEEDBACK CONTROL CONCEPT

ADVANTAGES OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

• It is not essential to know what disturbances will affect the process

• Also, the relationship between the final control element and the

process is not an issue

• Standard hardware can be used for almost any application

• The principles of feedback control apply to all types of process

control instrumentation.

• Traditional, stand-alone feedback controllers offer the simplest

approach to automatic control.

Modes of Control

TOPICS

Stability

Ultimate Gain

Tuning Methods

Ratio Control

Cascade Control

Application Examples

Modes of Control

Stability

Modes of Control

STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

that they may become unstable.

The loop is said to be unstable when a small change in

disturbance or set point causes the system to deviate

widely from its normal operating point.

Modes of Control

STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

controller has the incorrect action or it is tuned two

tightly, that is, the gain is too high, the integral time is

too small, the derivative time is too high, or a

combination of all of these.

Another possible cause is that the process is inherently

unstable, but this is rare.

Modes of Control

STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

can be recognized by the controller output “running

away” to either its upper or its lower limit.

In this case, a small increase in the process variable

would result in an opening of the steam valve, which in

turn would increase the temperature further, and the

cycle would continue until the controller output

reached its maximum with the steam valve fully

opened.

Modes of Control

STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

in a closing of the steam valve, which would further

reduce the temperature, and the cycle would continue

until the controller output is at its minimum point with

the steam valve fully closed.

Thus, for a loop to be stable, the controller action

must be “increasing measurement decreases output.”

This is known as reverse action.

Modes of Control

STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

When the controller is tuned too tightly, instability can

be recognised by observing that the signals in the loop

oscillate and the amplitude of the oscillations increases

with time.

The reason for this type of instability is that the tightly

tuned controller overcorrects for the error and,

because of the delays and lags around the loop, the

over-corrections are not detected by the controller

until some time later.

This causes a larger error in the opposite direction and

further over-correction. If this is allowed to continue

the controller output will end up oscillating between its

upper and lower limits.

Modes of Control

Modes of Control

STABILITY OF THE FEEDBACK LOOP

is caused by the controller having too high a gain, too

fast an integral time, too high a derivative time, or a

combination of all of these.

This is a good point to introduce the simplest method

for characterizing the process in order to tune the

controller, determining the ultimate gain and period of

oscillation of the loop.

Modes of Control

Ultimate Gain

Modes of Control

DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

process for controller tuning was proposed by J. G.

Ziegler and N. B. Nichols.

The ultimate gain is the gain of a proportional

controller at which the loop oscillates with constant

amplitude, and is a measure of the controllability of

the loop; that is, the higher the ultimate gain, the

easier it is to control the loop.

Modes of Control

DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

is, in turn, a measure of the speed of response of the

loop. That is, the longer the period, the slower the

loop.

Because this method of characterizing a process must

be performed with the feedback loop closed, that is,

with the controller in "Automatic Mode" it is also known

as the "closed-loop method."

Modes of Control

DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

it is the gain at which the loop is at the threshold of

instability.

At gains just below the ultimate the loop signals will

oscillate with decreasing amplitude, while at gains

above the ultimate the amplitude of the oscillations

will increase with time.

When determining the ultimate gain of an actual

feedback control loop, it is therefore very important to

ensure that it is not exceeded by much, or the system

will become violently unstable.

Modes of Control

DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

period is carried out with the controller in "Auto" and

with the integral and derivative modes removed. It is as

follows:

1. Remove the integral mode by setting the integral time

to its highest value. Alternatively, if the controller

model or program allows the integral mode to be

switched off, then do so.

2. Switch off the derivative mode or set the derivative

time to its lowest value, usually zero.

Modes of Control

DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

After each increase, disturb the loop by introducing a

small step change in the set point, and observe the

response of the controlled and manipulated variables,

preferably on a trend recorder. The variables should

start oscillating as the gain is increased.

4. When the amplitude of the oscillations remains

constant (or approximately constant) from one

oscillation to the next, the ultimate controller gain has

been reached. Record it as Kcu.

Modes of Control

DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

recordings, as shown, or a stopwatch. For better

accuracy, time several oscillations and calculate the

average period. In the example shown, the time

required for five oscillations is measured and then

divided by five.

6. Stop the oscillations by reducing the gain to about half

of the ultimate.

Modes of Control

DETERMINING THE ULTIMATE GAIN AND PERIOD

Modes of Control

Tuning Methods

Modes of Control

TUNING FOR QUARTER DECAY RESPONSE

Ziegler and Nichols also proposed that the ultimate gain

and period be used to tune the controller for a specific

response, that is, the quarter-decay ratio response, or

QDR, for short.

The next slide illustrates the QDR response for a step

change in disturbance and for a step change in set point.

Its characteristic is that each oscillation has an amplitude

that is one fourth that of the previous oscillation.

For reference, a table is given which summarizes the

formulas proposed by Ziegler and Nichols for calculating

the QDR tuning parameters of P, PI, and PID controllers

from the ultimate gain Kcu and period Tu.

Modes of Control

AND SET POINT

Modes of Control

TUNING FOR QUARTER DECAY RESPONSE

Modes of Control

TUNING FOR QUARTER DECAY RESPONSE

reduction of 10 percent in the QDR gain between the P

and the PI controller tuning formulas. This is due to the

additional lag introduced by the integral mode.

On the other hand, the addition of the derivative mode

allows the controller gain to increase by 20 percent

over the proportional controller. Therein lies the

justification for the derivative mode, the increase in

the controllability of the loop.

Modes of Control

TUNING FOR QUARTER DECAY RESPONSE

PID controller formulas show a ratio of 1:4. This is a

useful relationship to keep in mind when tuning PID

controllers by trial and error, that is, in those cases

when the ultimate gain and period cannot be

determined.

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