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# Course Code: CEC315A

## Course Title: Transportation Design and Drawing

Course Leader: Chethan Gowda R K

Lecture No: 8
Title: Box culvert
Delivered by: Chethan Gowda R K
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Intended Learning Outcomes

## • Discuss behavior of box culvert

• Design and detail the box culvert

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Box Culvert: Introduction
• Constructed if
– Discharge in a drain or a channel crossing a road is small
– Bearing capacity of the soil is low

## • Consists of RCC box of square or rectangular opening with span

restricted to 4 m

## • If the design discharge is considerable, a single box culvert becomes

uneconomical because of the higher thickness of the slabs & walls;
more than one box is cast side by side monolithically in such cases
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Box Culvert

## Box culvert: half section & half elevation 4

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Why Box Culverts are Economical?
• Box is a rigid frame structure and both the horizontal & vertical
members are made of a solid slab, which is very simple in
construction

## • In case of high embankments, an ordinary culvert will require very

heavy abutments that will not only be expensive but also transfer

## • Box type of structure is suitable for non-perennial streams where

scour depth is not significant but subgrade soil is weak

over a wider area as the bottom slab serves as a raft foundation,
thus reducing pressure on soil 5
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Design Method
• Design is done by treating culvert as a rigid frame

## • Moment distribution method is adopted for determination of final

moments at the joints of the frame

## • For designing multiple box culverts, interpolation formula is to be

used in which, design moments for any box culvert with a span of 3
to 9 m can be evaluated with reference to some known values of
loads & moments for box culverts of standard or known dimensions

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water pressure from inside (no flow in the drain)

water pressure from inside

acting from inside and no lateral pressure due to live load

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Example
Design a box culvert having inside dimensions of 3 m X 3 m. This
IRC Class AA tracked vehicle. Assume the unit weight of soil to be
18,000 N/m3. The angle of repose of soil is 30⁰. Use M25 concrete and
F 415 steel. Road width is 7.5 m. Span is 3.3 m.

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Solution
• For design purpose, 1 m length of box culvert is considered

## • Thickness of slab & walls are assumed as 300 mm (normally taken

as 1/10th to 1/15th of the span)

## • Frame dimensions work out to be 3.3 m X 3.3 m

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Solution (contd..)
water pressure from inside

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
Lateral pressure

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
Forces on box culvert
for Case 1

## Moments & shear force calculation

• On account of symmetry, it is enough to consider half the frame
AEFD for moment distribution
• As all the members are of uniform thickness and have the same
dimensions, their moments of inertia are equal 17
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Solution (contd..)
Relative stiffness of members are

## Distribution factors are

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Solution (contd..)
Fixed end moments are

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Solution (contd..)
Moment distribution table for Case 1

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Solution (contd..)
For horizontal slab AB, carrying udl at 58,500 N/m2, the vertical
reactions at A & B are

Similarly, for bottom slab DC carrying udl at 73,500 N/m2, the vertical
reactions at D & C are

## For the vertical member AD, the horizontal reaction hA at A is found by

or
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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution
(contd..)

Bending
moments,
shear forces
& axial forces
for Case 1

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Solution (contd..)
and water pressure from inside

## Water pressure at A is zero

At D, it has peak value
The intensity of this pressure at D is

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Solution (contd..)
For horizontal slab AB, carrying udl at 58,500 N/m2, the vertical
reactions at A & B are 96,525 N

For bottom slab DC carrying udl 73,500 N/m2, the vertical reactions at
D & C are 121,275 N

## For vertical member AD, the horizontal reaction hA at A is found by

On simplification,
Horizontal reaction at D,
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Solution (contd..)
Moment distribution table for Case 2

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Solution (contd..)
Pressure distribution and bending moment diagram for Case 2

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
pressure acting from inside and no lateral pressure due to live load

No consideration is made for the lateral effect of the live load on the
walls
Thus, the top of the slab is subjected to a loading of 58,500 N/m2
Lateral pressure owing to earth
Total lateral pressure at bottom

## In addition to these, vertical wall will be subjected to water pressure

of zero intensity at top and 32,340 (9800 X 3.3) at bottom which acts
from inside 30
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Solution (contd..)
Fixed end moments are

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Solution (contd..)
For vertical member AD, the horizontal reaction hA at A is found by

On simplification,

## The horizontal reaction at D

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Solution (contd..)
Moment distribution table for Case 3

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
Pressure distribution for Case 3

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Solution
(contd..)

Bending
moment
diagram for
Case 3

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Solution (contd..)
For maximum hogging bending moment,

## Maximum bending moment,

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Solution (contd..)
Design of top slab

conditions

## Section has to be designed for the maximum bending moment of

55,218.125 Nm induced at the centre
The direct tensile force of 2117.30 N is small and therefore neglected
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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
Provide 20 mm diameter bars at 250 mm c/c

## These bars are bent alternatively near supports at a distance of L/5 =

3.3/5 = 0.66 m from edges

## 8 mm diameter bars may be provided at c/c distance of 130 mm on

each face 40
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Solution (contd..)
At support points, additional reinforcements are required in order to
cater to bending moment at the joints

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Solution (contd..)
Design of bottom slab

## Section has to be designed for the maximum bending moment of

65,997 Nm induced at the centre
The direct tensile force of 5241.70 N is small and therefore neglected
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Solution (contd..)

## 20 mm diameter bars may be provided at 200 mm c/c (actual area =

1570 mm2)
Bars are bent the outer face near the support
Distribution steel may be the same as that of the top slab, i.e. 8 mm
diameter bars at 130 mm c/c
Additional reinforcement is to be placed at the joints
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Solution (contd..)

## 8 mm diameter bars may be provided at 200 mm c/c throughout the

bottom

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Solution (contd..)
Design of side walls

## The side walls can be designed using SP 16

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Solution (contd..)

Now,

where,

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Solution (contd..)
For the ratios 0.039 & 0.030, refer to the interaction curve of SP 16
(design aids- for reinforced concrete- to IS 456-1978)

## From this curve (page 116, SP 16),

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Solution (contd..)

## Provide 20 mm diameter bars at 300 mm c/c on both faces in the

vertical walls
Distribution steel of 8 mm diameter may be placed at 300 mm c/c on
both the faces
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Solution
(contd..)

Transverse
section of
the box

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Summary

## • Moment distribution method is adopted for

determination of final moments at the joints of the frame