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Course Code: CEC315A

Course Title: Transportation Design and Drawing


Course Leader: Chethan Gowda R K

Lecture No: 8
Title: Box culvert
Delivered by: Chethan Gowda R K
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Intended Learning Outcomes

At the end of this lecture, students will be able to:

• Discuss behavior of box culvert


• Design and detail the box culvert

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Box Culvert: Introduction
• Constructed if
– Discharge in a drain or a channel crossing a road is small
– Bearing capacity of the soil is low

• Consists of RCC box of square or rectangular opening with span


restricted to 4 m

• Top of the box may be at road level or it may be at a depth below


the road level if the road is in embankment

• If the design discharge is considerable, a single box culvert becomes


uneconomical because of the higher thickness of the slabs & walls;
more than one box is cast side by side monolithically in such cases
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Box Culvert

Box culvert: half section & half elevation 4


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Why Box Culverts are Economical?
• Box is a rigid frame structure and both the horizontal & vertical
members are made of a solid slab, which is very simple in
construction

• In case of high embankments, an ordinary culvert will require very


heavy abutments that will not only be expensive but also transfer
heavy loads to the foundations

• Box type of structure is suitable for non-perennial streams where


scour depth is not significant but subgrade soil is weak

• Dead load & superimposed load are distributed almost uniformly


over a wider area as the bottom slab serves as a raft foundation,
thus reducing pressure on soil 5
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Design Method
• Design is done by treating culvert as a rigid frame

• Moment distribution method is adopted for determination of final


moments at the joints of the frame

• Culvert is analyzed for critical loading conditions

• For designing multiple box culverts, interpolation formula is to be


used in which, design moments for any box culvert with a span of 3
to 9 m can be evaluated with reference to some known values of
loads & moments for box culverts of standard or known dimensions

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Critical Loading Conditions
1. Live load, dead load and earth pressure being present and no
water pressure from inside (no flow in the drain)

2. Live load, dead load and earth pressure acting from outside and
water pressure from inside

3. Live load and dead load acting on the top of slab, water pressure
acting from inside and no lateral pressure due to live load

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Example
Design a box culvert having inside dimensions of 3 m X 3 m. This
culvert is subjected to a dead load of 14,000 N/m2 and a live load of
IRC Class AA tracked vehicle. Assume the unit weight of soil to be
18,000 N/m3. The angle of repose of soil is 30⁰. Use M25 concrete and
F 415 steel. Road width is 7.5 m. Span is 3.3 m.

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Solution
• For design purpose, 1 m length of box culvert is considered

• Analysis is done for 3 critical loading cases

• Thickness of slab & walls are assumed as 300 mm (normally taken


as 1/10th to 1/15th of the span)

• Wearing coat thickness is taken as 80 mm

• For analysis, central line of the frame is considered

• Frame dimensions work out to be 3.3 m X 3.3 m


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Solution (contd..)
Case 1: Live load, dead load and earth pressure being present and no
water pressure from inside

Concentrated vertical load owing to wheel load

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
Loads and reactions

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Solution (contd..)
Lateral pressure

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
Forces on box culvert
for Case 1

Moments & shear force calculation


• On account of symmetry, it is enough to consider half the frame
AEFD for moment distribution
• As all the members are of uniform thickness and have the same
dimensions, their moments of inertia are equal 17
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Solution (contd..)
Relative stiffness of members are

Distribution factors are

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Solution (contd..)
Fixed end moments are

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Solution (contd..)
Moment distribution table for Case 1

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Solution (contd..)
For horizontal slab AB, carrying udl at 58,500 N/m2, the vertical
reactions at A & B are

Similarly, for bottom slab DC carrying udl at 73,500 N/m2, the vertical
reactions at D & C are

For the vertical member AD, the horizontal reaction hA at A is found by


taking moments about D, thus

or
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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution
(contd..)

Bending
moments,
shear forces
& axial forces
for Case 1

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Solution (contd..)
Case 2: Live load, dead load and earth pressure acting from outside
and water pressure from inside

Water pressure at A is zero


At D, it has peak value
The intensity of this pressure at D is

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Solution (contd..)
For horizontal slab AB, carrying udl at 58,500 N/m2, the vertical
reactions at A & B are 96,525 N

For bottom slab DC carrying udl 73,500 N/m2, the vertical reactions at
D & C are 121,275 N

For vertical member AD, the horizontal reaction hA at A is found by


taking moments about D, thus,

On simplification,
Horizontal reaction at D,
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Solution (contd..)
Moment distribution table for Case 2

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Solution (contd..)
Pressure distribution and bending moment diagram for Case 2

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
Case 3: Live load and dead load acting on the top of slab, water
pressure acting from inside and no lateral pressure due to live load

No consideration is made for the lateral effect of the live load on the
walls
Thus, the top of the slab is subjected to a loading of 58,500 N/m2
The bottom of the slab has a loading of 73,500 N/m2
Lateral pressure owing to dead load
Lateral pressure owing to earth
Total lateral pressure at bottom

In addition to these, vertical wall will be subjected to water pressure


of zero intensity at top and 32,340 (9800 X 3.3) at bottom which acts
from inside 30
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Solution (contd..)
Fixed end moments are

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Solution (contd..)
For vertical member AD, the horizontal reaction hA at A is found by
taking moments about D, thus,

On simplification,

The horizontal reaction at D

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Solution (contd..)
Moment distribution table for Case 3

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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
Pressure distribution for Case 3

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Solution
(contd..)

Bending
moment
diagram for
Case 3

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Solution (contd..)
For maximum hogging bending moment,

Maximum bending moment,

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Solution (contd..)
Design of top slab

Bending moments & direct forces on top slab under different loading
conditions

Section has to be designed for the maximum bending moment of


55,218.125 Nm induced at the centre
The direct tensile force of 2117.30 N is small and therefore neglected
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Solution (contd..)

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Solution (contd..)
Provide 20 mm diameter bars at 250 mm c/c

These bars are bent alternatively near supports at a distance of L/5 =


3.3/5 = 0.66 m from edges

Area of distribution steel is taken as 0.2% of the gross sectional area

Area on each face = 300 mm2

8 mm diameter bars may be provided at c/c distance of 130 mm on


each face 40
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Solution (contd..)
At support points, additional reinforcements are required in order to
cater to bending moment at the joints

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Solution (contd..)
Design of bottom slab

Bending moments & direct forces on bottom slab under different


loading conditions

Section has to be designed for the maximum bending moment of


65,997 Nm induced at the centre
The direct tensile force of 5241.70 N is small and therefore neglected
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Solution (contd..)

20 mm diameter bars may be provided at 200 mm c/c (actual area =


1570 mm2)
Bars are bent the outer face near the support
Distribution steel may be the same as that of the top slab, i.e. 8 mm
diameter bars at 130 mm c/c
Additional reinforcement is to be placed at the joints
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Solution (contd..)

8 mm diameter bars may be provided at 200 mm c/c throughout the


bottom

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Solution (contd..)
Design of side walls

Bending moments & direct forces on side walls under different


loading conditions

The side walls can be designed using SP 16

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Solution (contd..)

Now,

where,

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Solution (contd..)
For the ratios 0.039 & 0.030, refer to the interaction curve of SP 16
(design aids- for reinforced concrete- to IS 456-1978)

From this curve (page 116, SP 16),

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Solution (contd..)

Provide 20 mm diameter bars at 300 mm c/c on both faces in the


vertical walls
Distribution steel of 8 mm diameter may be placed at 300 mm c/c on
both the faces
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Solution
(contd..)

Transverse
section of
the box

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Summary

• Box culvert is designed by treating it as a rigid frame

• Moment distribution method is adopted for


determination of final moments at the joints of the frame

• Culvert is analyzed for critical loading conditions

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