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DESIGN OF GROUNDING SYSTEM IN

SUBSTATION USING ETAP

GUIDED BY:- GROUP MEMBERS:-


Mr. GURUSHARAN SINGH VAIBHAVI SHUKLA
GAURAV MAURYA
SHEETAL
TABLE OF CONTENT

S.NO. TITLE
1 Purpose of grounding
2 Touch potential
3 Step potential
4 Human safety
5 Selection of conductor and joints
6 Minimum size
7 What is good grounding
8 Referances
Purpose of Grounding

 Safety of the living beings around the vicinity


of the substation.
 Proper functioning of the protection system
under fault condition.
 To limit the touch and step potential within
tolerable limits.
Touch Potential

 Touch Potential is the potential difference between


GPR and the surface potential at the point where a
person is standing, while at the same time having
hands in contact with a grounded structure.
 Touch Potential is controlled by proper bonding and
protective systems, such as personnel safety mats.
 1,000A Fault current
 5Ω Ground resistance 5,000
V
 Touch potential due to
voltage gradient 2,500 V
 Resistance of body: 1,000 Ω
(IEEE® 80)
Step Potential

 Step potential is the differance in surface


potential experienced by a person’s feet bridging
a distance of 1m without contacting any other
grounded surface.
 Step potential is controlled by properly designed
ground electrode system (grid) or the use of wire.
 Same potential between 50% Voltage Drop
The feet. Between feet.
Human Safety
Current Range Effects on Humans

 1 mA Threshold of perception
 1-6 mA Let go currents
 9-25 mA Pain full, hard to let go
 25-60 mA Muscular contractions
 60-100 mA Ventricular fibrillation

0.116
Maximum Body Current: Ik = for t = .03s to 3s
√t
Selection of Conductors and Joints

 Basic requirement
• Each element in grounding system including grid
conductors, joints, connecting leads and all
primary grounding electrodes should be design
for the expected design life of installation, the
element will be.
• Have sufficient conductivity.
• Resist fusing and mechanical deterioration
under most adverse combination of a fault
current magnitude and duration.
• Be mechanically reliable and rugged to a high
degree, especially on location exposed to
corrosion and physical abuse.
Choice of material related to
corrosion problems
 Copper
• High conductivity
• Resist to underground corrosion – cathodic with respect to other
metals
• Disadvantage - Form a galvanic cell with buried steel structure,
pipes, and any of lead-based alloy that may present in cable
shealth
 Aluminum
• Used less frequently
• Corrode in certain soils – layer of corrode material is
nonconductive for all practical grounding purpose
• Gradual corrosion due to alternating currents
 Steel
• Eliminate most of the adverse effects of copper
• Use application of galvanized or corrosion-resistant steel in
combination of cathodic protection to extend life
Selection of joints

 Connection must able to withstand mechanical


stresses without any significant deterioration due
to corrosion metal fatigue and electromagnetic
forces for many years.
 Another factor must be considered are
connectivity, thermal capacity, mechanical
strength and reliability.
 Type of connection: exothermic welds, brazed
joints and pressure type.
Minimum size

 Selection of minimum size of material used for


grounding depend on ambient temperature,
maximum allowable temperature and magnitude
of fault current.
 To determine the minimum size of conductor
cable can be determine from the following
formula
tc r  r .10 4
Amm
2
I TCAP
  Tm  Ta 
ln 1   
where   K 0  Ta 
I  rms current in A
A  conductor cross section in mm 2
Tm  maximum allowable temperatu re in  C
Ta  ambient te mperature in  C
Tr  reference temperatu re for amterial constants in  C
 0  thermal coefficien t of resistivit y at 0  C
 r  thermal coefficien t of resistivit y at reference temperatu re Tr
 r  the resistivit y of the ground conductor at reference temperatu re Tr in μ/cm 3
K0  1/ 0
tc  time of current flow in s
TCAP  thermal capacity factor from table 1 in J/cm 3 /  C
What is a good grounding

 Low electrical resistance measured in ohms.


 Good corrosion resistance.
 Ability to carry high currents repeatedly.
 Ability to perform above function for 30 years or
more.
References

 IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation


Grounding (ANSI/IEEE Std 80-1986) – Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
 J. Philip Simmons, Electrical Grounding and
Bonding, Thomson Delmar Learning, 2005.
Thank you