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Content

• Acknowledgement
• Introduction
• History of Street Light
• List of Components
• Specification of Components
1. Light dependant resistor
2. Transistor
3. Resistor
4. LED lights
5. Printed Circuit Boards
• Basic Principle
• Advantages
• Uses
• Working
• Circuit Diagram
• Conclusion
• Bibliography
Acknowledgment
I would like to express my gratitude to “teachers name”
under whose supervision and guidance the work was taken
up and completed.
I am grateful to “principal and school’s name” for
providing all facilities and cordial atmosphere which went
to long way in completing this project work.
I must express my thankfulness towards all the staff and
attendants of physics laboratory without the help of whom
this work would have never been completed.
I extend my sincere thanks to my classmates for all
valuable assistance and cooperation during the course of
work. :”.

“your name” .
Class XII .

Roll number - .
Introduction
Many people have a phobia of darkness, so to assist them
in such situations, we have explained a simple circuit that
will automatically turn on the street light consisting of
LEDs or bulb coupled with relay. It is lit well enough to see
the objects nearby.
Street light controllers are smarter versions of the
mechanical or electric timers previously used for street
light on/off operation. They come with energy
conservation option like twilight saving, staging or
dimming.
Automatic Street light control system is a simple and
powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch to
switch on and off the street light automatically. By using
this system manual works are removed. It automatically
switches of lights under illumination by sunlight. This is
done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor(LDR)
which senses the light actually like our eyes.
By using this system energy consumption is also reduced
because nowadays the manually operated street lights
are not switched on and off on time.
History of street lights
Lack of natural light during
night time in the urban
environment was always a
problem. From basic
inconvenience that people
cannot see where they are
going to the greater chance of
being attacked or mugged
during the night. Because the
problem was there since
humans started living together,
history of street light is maybe
longer than we think.
It is known that natural gas was led through bamboo pipes from
volcano gas leaks to the streets of Peking to serve as a fuel for
street lamps and that as early as 500 years BC. Ancient Romans
used oil lamps filled with vegetable oil in front of their houses
and had special slaves whose only duty was to take care of
those lamps, to light them, extinguish them and watch that
they always have oil. First organized method of public lightning
was done on 1417, when Mayor of London, Sir Henry Barton
first ordained that by law all houses must hang lanterns outside
when night falls during the winter months. Paris street were
illuminated first time by order in 1524 that said that all houses
must have light in the windows at night if they face the streets.
Era of more efficient street lightning starts with William
Murdock who, for the first time in 1802, lit the outside of
the Soho Foundry in a public presentation with a gas light
fuelled with coal gas. After that, in 1807, London got its
first gas lit street. Baltimore was the first city in the
United States that started using gas for streetlight in 1816
while Paris started gas illumination of its streets in 1820.
Gas was led through pipe installations to the gas lanterns
that were placed on poles.
First electric streetlight used arc lamps, namely
“Yablochkov candle”. It was first used in 1878 in Paris. By
1881, some 4000 were in use, replacing gas lanterns on
the poles. After the spreading of the arc lamps in the
United States, by 1890 there were more than 130,000 arc
lamps installed as streetlights. Most of them were
installed on the tops of so-called “moonlight towers” -
tall, metal constructions that illuminated more city blocks
at once. Arc lights had two major flaws: they made
strong, harsh light and they did not last long. So in time
they were replaced with incandescent lamps that were
cheaper, brighter and lasted longer, while arc lamps
remained useful on industrial sites. Today, streetlights use
high-intensity discharge lamps, mostly HPS high-pressure
sodium lamps.
List of components
• Light Dependant Resistor
• Transistor
• Resistor
• LED lights
• Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
Specification of
Components
Light Dependant Resistor :- A Light Dependent
Resistor (LDR) is also called a photo resistor or a
cadmium sulphide (CdS) cell. It is basically a photocell
that works on the principle of photoconductivity. The
passive component is basically a resistor whose resistance
value decreases when the intensity of light decreases.
This device is mostly used in light varying sensor circuit,
and light and dark activated switching circuits.

Transistor :- A transistor is a semiconductor


device used to amplify or switch electronics signals
and electrical power. It is composed
of semiconductors material usually with at least
three terminals for connection to an external circuit.
A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's
terminals controls the current through another pair of
terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be
higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can
amplify a signal
Light Emitting Diode (LED) :-A light-emitting
diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source that emits
light when current flows through it. Electrons in the
semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing
energy in the form of photons. The colour of the light
(corresponding to the energy of the photons) is
determined by the energy required for electrons to cross
the band gap of the semiconductor. White light is
obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of
light-emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device.

Printed Circuit Board :- A printed circuit


board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically
connects electronic
components or electrical components
using conductive tracks, pads and other
features etched from one or more sheet layers of
copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of
a non-conductive substrate. Components are
generally soldered onto the PCB to both electrically
connect and mechanically fasten them to it.
Printed circuit board

Relays :- A relay is an electrically operated switch. It


consists of a set of input terminals for a single or multiple
control signals, and a set of operating contact terminals.
The switch may have any number of contacts in
multiple contact forms, such as make contacts, break
contacts, or combinations thereof.
Basic Principle
This project is based on Light Dependent
Resistance (L.D.R.). Light Dependent Resistance
[LDR] is a resistance, in which opposing power
of current depends on the presence of quantity of
light present, i.e. the resistance of LDR increases
or decreases, according to quantity of light which
falls on it.

If LDR places in darkness, the resistance of LDR


increases and when light falls on it, the resistance
of LDR decreases and act as a conductor. Any
LDR in the presence of light and darkness
changes its resistance is depends on the different
types of LDR.
Advantages
• Collection of parts of the circuit are easily
available.
• Accuracy of this circuit is more than accuracy of
other circuits.
• By using laser, it can be used for security
purposes.
• It can be used to stop the wastage of electricity.
• The cost of circuit is low.
• This circuit saves the people's power.
Uses
• It can be used in street lights.
• It can be used in mines areas.
• It can be used in hilly areas.
• By using laser, it can be used for safety
purposes.
• It can be used in frontier areas.
• It can be used in houses.
• It can be used in jail lights.
Working
Let 6V. DC is flowed in the circuit. When light falls
on LDR then the resistance of LDR will decreases
and approximate equal to zero. 6V DC come from
220 kilo-ohms resistance and pass through LDR. At
this time, it becomes earth, so that no voltage flows
through the base of transistor T1. Due to absence of
positive voltage at base, emitter hasn't negative
voltage in the comparison of its base, so that
transistor T1 don't conduct and no current flows
through it. But resistance of 1.5 kilo-ohms is
connected with 6V DC line, so that from 6V DC
approximate 4V DC passes through 820 ohms and
reach at the base of transistor T2. For conduction,
emitter has some negative voltage in the comparison
of its base. But at this time, 4V DC reach at base of
transistor T2, so that emitter has highly negative
voltage in comparison of its base, so that transistor
T2 highly conducts. The collector of transistor T2 is
connected with relay coil, so that magnetic induction
around relay coil will disconnect with rest point and
connect with active point. So, According to the
circuit, the bulb will not glow.
Now, when light don't fall on LDR so that the
resistance of LDR increases. Now LDR has not zero
resistance due to darkness, so that 6V DC line and
220 kilo-ohms resistance, some positive voltage reach
at the base of transistor T1.The collector of transistor
T1 has positive voltage because 6V DC pass through
1.5 kilo-ohms resistance and reach at collector of
transistor T1. In this way transistor T1 conduct and
current start to flow in transistor T1. Transistor T1 and
resistance of 1.5 kilo-ohms are connected in series so
that the current also flows through 1.5 kilo-ohms
resistance. Now, the above terminal of 1.5 kilo-ohms
resistance has 6V DC, it means the lower terminal of
1.5 kilo-ohms resistance has lower voltage i.e. 3 or
3.5 V. From 3V approximate 1.5 V or 1 V. DC reaches
at base of transistor T2. The collector of transistor
T2 has positive voltage by relay coil. But at this time,
emitter has some negative voltage in the comparison
of its base.
So that the quantity of current which flows through
transistor T2 and relay coil will very low. Due to this,
magnetic induction around relay coil will not more
effective and pole point will disconnect with active
point and connect with rest point. According to the
circuit, the bulb will glow.
Circuit Diagram

• .
Conclusion
The street light controller using LDR based
light intensity and traffic density in todays
up-growing countries will be more effective
in case of cost, man power and security as
compared with todays running complicated
and complex light controlling system.
Automatic street light controlling system
puts up a very user friendly approach and
could increase the power.
This paper elaborates the design and the
construction of automatic street central
system circuit. Circuit works properly to
turn street lamp on /off. After designing the
circuit which controls the light of the street
as illustrated in previous sections.
Bibliography
• Physics NCERT Class 12
• http://www.allprojectreports.com/CBSE-HBSE-
School-Projects/Physics-Project-Report/light-
dependent-resistance.htm
• https://www.edgefx.in/light-sensor-circuit-
working-operation/
• https://www.academia.edu/27681811/AUTOMAT
IC
_STREET_LIGHT_CONTROL_SYSTEM_MINOR_PR
OJECT
• https://circuiteasy.com/automatic-street-
light/https://circuiteasy.com/automatic-street-
light/
• https://www.skyfilabs.com
• https://www.instructables.com/id/Automatic-
Street-Light-Using-Ldr/
• https://www.electricaltechnology.org/2013/04/a
utomatic-street-light-control.html
• https://www.electronicshub.org/automatic-
street-light-controller-circuit-using-relays-and-ldr/