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AIRCRAFT : current status ,future
directions and critical technologies

Presented by;
Asst. Professor
KMEA ENGG. College

 Abstract
 Introduction
 Working principle
 Design features
 Research focuses
 Future directions
 Critical technologies
 conclusion
The piston pump is the key power component in the civil
aircraft hydraulic system, and the most common pump
used in the aviation field is the pressure compensated
variable displacement type. In this review paper, a basic
introduction to the civil aircraft piston pump is presented ,
including the classification, structure, working principle,
design features, and achievements by some research
groups. Then, the future directions of the aircraft pump are
reported from various perspectives . Further, the critical
technologies are analyzed and summarized in detail from
six thrust areas : friction couples, noise reduction, inlet
boost, thermal management, fault diagnosis and health
management , and mechanical seal. Finally, the challenges
and limitations of the research on the aircraft pump are
discussed to provide valuable insight for future scholars.

 In the hydraulic system of civil aircraft, the piston pump is

one of the most critical power components.
 The pumps convert mechanical energy into hydraulic
energy, supplying power to the actuators to fulfill the flight
posture adjustment, and retraction and extension of the
landing gear and braking.
 they are capable of working at extremely high pressures
and speed while maintaining high overall efficiency.
 Working principle
Pascal’s Law
Pressure exerted on a fluid in an enclosed
container is transmitted equally and
undiminished to all parts of the container and
acts as right angles to the enclosing walls.
Main components

 Shaft
 Swash plate
 Attenuator
 Piston shoe hold-down plate
 Impeller
 As the drive shaft rotates, the 
pistons reciprocate within the
cylinder block bores.
 The piston shoes are held
against a bearing surface by
compression force during the
discharge stroke and by the
shoe hold-down plate and
retainer during the intake
 The pump displacement can
be adjusted by changing the
angle of the yoke through an
actuator piston, which is
driven by the control pressure
oil out from the compensator
Fixed displacement Variable
pumps displacement
• Every stroke of the motor • Flow rate and outlet
moves same amount of pressure can be changed
• More complex
• Simple
• More expensive
• Relatively inexpensive
• Capable of doing wider
• Easier to maintain variety of jobs
commonly used pumps

No Name Type
1 Engine driven pump (EDP) variable
2 Electric motor pump (EMP) Variable /fixed
3 Air driven pump (ADP) variable
4 Power transfer unit (PTU) Variable /fixed
Design features
 Centrifugal boost impeller
For the suction performance at low inlet pressure
 Attenuation
o Minimizes outlet pressure pulsations
o Reduces wear on components
o Improves overall reliabilities
 Electric depressurization valve
o Outlet pressure to depressurizing position
o Reduces power loss
 Blocking valve
o Viscous dampening of blocking valve :allow sufficient
decompression of the outlet fluid of the system
 Gerotor
o Ensures case drain flow
o Decreasing the operating temperature
o Minimizing the pressure loads on the rotating group
 Rotating mechanical seal
o This interface ensures the sealing of the fluid in high
speed cases
Future directions
The future directions of the aircraft pumps are likely
to move towards the following
a) High pressure
b) High rotational speed
c) Low pulsation
d) High reliability and long service life
e) Intelligence and energy saving
High pressure
Reducing the size and weight of the fluid power
equipment and improving the capability and
High rotational speed
Future development of general aircraft system is
directed towards highly integrated and powerful
Low pulsation
These are the flow pulsation that interact with the
connected pipeline system and transform into
pressure pulsations which then spreads to other
parts of the system
High reliability and long service life
It is an important factor to ensure safety and also
creates the demand for long service life of the pump
Intelligence and energy saving
An intelligent hydraulic pump system is kind of pump
system whose output can be easily controlled by
virtue of an intelligent controller to meet the
requirements of an actual aircraft hydraulic system
Critical technologies
High pressure ,highest reliability ,and long service
life , intelligence and energy saving are main
directions for future pump designs. These arise new
problems or make the pre-existing more
Noise reduction
 Fluid borne noise sources (FBNS)
 Structure borne noise sources (SBNS)
Inlet booster impeller
Compared with common pumps, the EDP and EMP in
modern aircraft are more likely to suffer from
cavitation damage than those in other engineering
applications since they work at high rotation speed .
Thermal management
o Hydraulic systems are used to get higher pressure
and higher power
o The higher pressure means greater power loss ,and
aircraft pump belongs to compact design aviation
equipment resulting in higher rapid temperature
Fault diagnosis and health management

oThe main role is to prevent leakage inside instruments

The research on civil aircraft pump has lasted for more
than 60years .particularly in recent years ,advances in
computer science , CFD, materials, process, technologies
etc. have significantly pushed forward the development of
the aircraft piston pump. The design and development of
the piston pump involve mechanical ENGG. Electronics ,
fluid mechanics, material technology, control theory etc .

• Hydraulic piston pump in civil aircraft: Current

status, future directions and critical technologies
Shengrong GUOa , b, Jinhua CHENa , b, Yueliang LUa,b, Yan
WANG c , * , Hongkang DONG c
 Fault diagnosis of an intelligent hydraulic pump
based on a nonlinear unknown input observer
Zhonghai MA, Shaoping WANG, Jian SHI *, TongyangLI,
Ma ZH, Wang SP, Shi J, Li TY, Wang XJ. Fault diagnosis of an
intelligent hydraulic pump based on a nonlinear unknown input
observer. Chin J Aeronaut 2018;31(2):385–94.
Thank you…