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TESTING THE

TENSILE
STRENGTH OF
STEEL BARS
GROUP 6
• TOLERAN, MATTHEW
• TORRES, JAMES ANTHONY
• VIOLETA, RYAN KENNETH
• YAMBAO, CHRISTIANE KATE
• Tensile strength is the ability of a material to
WHAT IS withstand a pulling (tensile) force. It is
customarily measured in units of force per
TENSILE cross-sectional area. This is an important

STRENGTH? concept in engineering, especially in the fields


of material science, mechanical engineering
and structural engineering.
ASTM A370 • The primary use of these test methods is to
determine the specified mechanical properties
STANDARD of steel, stainless steel, and related alloy

TEST FOR products for the evaluation of conformance of


such products to a material specification under
TENSILE the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 and

STRENGTH its subcommittees as designated by a purchaser


in a purchase order or contract.
OF STEEL • The tensile strength of a structural steel bar is
BAR 400Mpa and 841Mpa for carbon steel.
FIVE
STAGES 1. PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

OF 2. ELASTIC LIMIT

TENSILE 3. YIELD STRENGTH


STRENGTH 4. ULTIMATE STRENGTH
5. BREAKING STRENGTH
PROPORTIONAL • Proportional limit is point on the curve up to
LIMIT which the value of stress and strain remains
proportional.
• The stress up to this point can be also be
known as proportional limit stress.
PROPORTIONAL
LIMIT
ELASTIC • Elastic limit is the limiting value of stress up to

LIMIT which the material is perfectly elastic.


• Material will return back to its original
position, If it is unloaded before the crossing of
point elasticity. This is so, because material is
perfectly elastic up to point of elasticity.
ELASTIC
LIMIT
• The stress a material can withstand without
permanent deformation.

YIELD • It is the stress value that the steel can take


while still showing elastic behavior. Any stress
STRENGTH applied to steel above this value will take it
into the plastic zone.
• The value of yield strength depends on grade
of steel. Mild steel (MS) has yield strength of
approx 250 MPa in tension; Fe415 grade has
yield strength of 415 MPa.
FE 415

MILD
STEEL
YIELD
STRENGTH
ULTIMATE • The maximum strength a material can

TENSILE withstand while being stretched or pulled


before failing or breaking.
STRENGTH • Materials that break very sharply are said to
undergo a ‘brittle failure’.
ULTIMATE
TENSILE
STRENGTH
BREAKING • Also known as the Fracture Strength.

STRENGTH • The maximum amount of tensile stress that the


material can withstand before failure, such
as fractures, breaking or permanent
deformation.
BREAKING
STRENGTH
TOOLS AND
EQUIPMENTS 1. UNIVERSAL TESTING
FOR TESTING MACHINE
THE TENSILE 2. EXTENSOMETER
STRENGTH 3. SHIMMING MATERIALS
OF STEEL 4. STEEL BARS
UNIVERSAL • A universal testing machine is used to test the

TESTING tensile stress and compressive strength of


materials.
MACHINE • It is named after the fact that it can perform
many standard tensile and compression tests
on materials, components, and structures.
UNIVERSAL
TESTING
MACHINE
EXTENSO- • An extensometer is an instrument that

METER measures the elongation of a material under


stress.
• The elongation of the material is a physical
deformation of the sample and is a type of
strain associated with tensile measurements.
EXTENSO-
METER
2 CLASSES 1. CONTACT
EXTENSOMETERS
OF
EXTENSO- 2. NON-CONTACT
EXTENSOMETERS
METER
• Contact extensometers test the deformation by
CONTACT directly placing a physical object onto the
sample such as a knife-edge.
EXTENSO- • Contact extensometers include clip-on
METER extensometers and digital sensor arm
extensometers. These types of extensometers
are capable of detecting small displacements.
CLIP-ON
EXTENSO-
METER
NON • Non-contact extensometers use cameras and
CONTACT light to determine the deformational
parameters without physically touching the
EXTENSO- sample.

METER • Non-contact extensometers include laser and


video extensometers.
LASER
EXTENSO-
METER

VIDEO
EXTENSO-
METER
• A shim is a thin and often tapered or wedged
SHIMMING piece of material, used to fill small gaps or
spaces between objects.
MATERIALS • Shims are typically used in order to support,
adjust for better fit, or provide a level surface.
• The metals used include aluminum, brass,
bronze, copper, steel and nickel.
ALIGNMENT
/SPACER
SHIMS
STEEL • Steel bars are used as a tension device

BARS in reinforced concrete and


reinforced masonry structures to strengthen
and aid the concrete under tension.
STEEL
BARS
PROCEDURES
IN  Identify the reinforcing bars to be tested and
cut them to a length of approximately 30 in.
TESTING  Prepare the extensometer for testing.
THE TENSILE a. Place the set pin in the extensometer.

STRENGTH b. Add the gage length extender to the


extensometer.
OF STEEL
PROCEDURES
IN  specimen
Install the knife edges appropriate for the

TESTING  Choose a method to attach the extensometer


being tested.

THE TENSILE to the specimen being tested.


STRENGTH a. Rubber Bands (Preferred Method)

OF STEEL b. Quick Attachment Spring


c. Coil Springs
PROCEDURES
IN  extensometer
Make the electrical connection between the

TESTING  Initialize the computer and data acquisition


and the MTS test controller.

THE TENSILE system.


STRENGTH  Load the test protocol

OF STEEL
PROCEDURES
IN  Create a folder for your test data.

TESTING  Install the test specimen in the test machine.


 Save the test data

THE TENSILE  Install the extensometer on the specimen.


STRENGTH  Begin loading the specimen.
OF STEEL  Export test data.
PROCEDURES
IN  Remove the failed specimen from the grips.
TESTING displacement position
 Return the test machine to the original

THE TENSILE  Save the test.


STRENGTH  If no more tests are to be performed, shut
OF STEEL down the test machine.
TESTING
THE
TENSILE
STRENGTH
OF STEEL