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THE CAVITE

MUTINY
The Cavite Mutiny
January 20, 1872
Led by Sgt. Lamadrid

BIRTH OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM


✣ The emergence of the middle class in the late

18th and 19th century


✣ The execution of the Martyred Priests: Father

Gomes, Burgos and Zamora


✣ The issue of secularisation on the Church

✣ The return of Jesuits to the Philippines

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The Cavite Mutiny
January 20, 1872
Led by Sgt. Lamadrid

BIRTH OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM


✣ Liberal administration of Gov. Gen. Carlos Ma.

De la Torre
✣ Replaced by Gov. Gen. Rafael de Izquierdo

A summary and arbitrary legal proceeding of the


secularisation movement led to the execution of four
individuals and three priests.

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The Cavite Mutiny of 1872 and
the Martyrdom of Gom-Bur-Za
account published by Edmund Plauchut
March, April, May, and June of the year 1877
Revue des deux mondes  Review of the Two Worlds

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America Spain

Philippines

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Gom-Bur-Za

 Father Mariano Gomez


 Father Jose Burgos
 Father Jacinto Zamora

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The English translation of
The Cavite Mutiny of 1872 and
the Martyrdom of Gom-Bur-Za
By Dalmacio Martin
“Hijos de pais” having rights to seats in
the Spanish Cortes fueled the belief that
the Spanish Constitutional regime was
born of the French Revolution.

8
The fear that another Bolivar or
another Iturbide might arise led Spain
to apply a policy of repression.
Furthermore, trust in Filipinos were
lessened and suspicion began to be
hatched.

9
Citizens of all classes were imprisoned
or sent to jail simply because they
showed support for the policies of the
government.

10
Captain-General Martinez, a new
Governor, arrived during these dark
times accompanied by Spanish sergeants
who were intended to replace Filipino
officers.

11
Young Captain Novales protested the
Governor’s order and became the
defender of the rights of his men (the
Filipino officers).

12
Novales was ordered to go to Mindanao
and was technically banished. His
brother Infantry Lieutenant Mariano
Novales handled Fort Santiago and his
friend Ruiz was in charge of the gates of
the city. With his power, he gathered
rebels to overcome Fort Santiago.

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Captain-General Martinez subdued the
rebels immediately. Captain Novales,
Officer Ruiz, and other multineers were
captured and shot at Arzobispado plaza.

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300
Spanish artillery men left in the city
to protect it from any surprise attacks

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Captain-General Martinez subdued the
rebels immediately. Captain Novales,
Officer Ruiz, and other multineers were
captured and shot at Arzobispado plaza.

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‘Machiavellian policy’ was being
carried out to the smallest details even
after the administration was changed.

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Filipinos gave away the provinces:
Pampanga to the Agustinians
Cavite to the Dominicans
Visayas to the Recollects
Mindanao to the Franciscans

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Another grabbing of curacies in 1870
led Archbishops of Manilas to protest to
the government in Madrid because how
Filipino priests are being cheated is a
scandal.

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Archbishop of Manila sent for the curate
of the cathedral, Padre Jose Burgos. He
acceded to the request and gathered
signatures of the others. This document
was later twisted as a revolutionary
manifesto.

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The Madrid government did not care
about the petitions of the secular clergy.
Governor General restricted entry of the
El Correo de Ultramur.

21
There was a public celebration for the
transportation of the remains of D.
Simon de Anda y Salazar from the
cathedral to the church of Francisco.

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Because of what happened in the church
of San Agustin, General La Torre
decided to do something for the colony.



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Reforms they considered
necessary to introduce
1. Changes in the tariff rates at customs, and the methods
of their collection
2. Removal of sub charges on foreign importations
3. Reduction of export fees
4. Permission for foreigners to reside in the Philippines,
buy real estate, enjoy freedom of worship, and operate
commercial transports flying the Spanish flag
5. Establishment of an advisory council to inform the
Minister of Overseas Affairs in Madrid on the necessary
reforms to be implemented

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Reforms they considered
necessary to introduce
6. Changes in primary and secondary education
7. Establishment of an Institute of Civil Administration
in the Philippines, rendering unnecessary the sending
home of short-term civil officials every time there is a
change of ministry
8. Study of the direct-tax system
9. Abolition of the tobacco monopoly

These reforms were implemented after the assumption of the Ministry of


Overseas Affairs by Don Seigsmundo Moret y Prendergast.

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• General Izquerdo y Gutierrez arrived
in Manila in 1871 and the Filipino
group agitating for reforms stopped
their polemics in the newspaper in
Spain.
• He took over the government and said
“I shall govern holding in one hand a
cross and in the other a sword”.

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• It was previously decreed that there
should be a Society of Arts and Trades
in Manila to be opened in March of
1871.
• The complete seperation of Spaniards
and the other of natives was the
standard practice in order to avoid
harmful rivalry.

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• The news in Manila could publish those
which were permitted to be published by
the board of censors
• The spanish newspapers were called
“La Discusion and El Eco Filipino”
• The Filipinos had a duty to render
service on public roads construction and
pay taxes every year

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• Forty men of the marine infantry
together with 22 artillerymen attacked
and captured the Fort of San Felipe in
Cavite.

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People Apprehended and Sent
to Prison
1. Jose Burgos 7. Pio Basa
2. Agustin Mendoza (curate of Sta. 8. Jose Basa
Cruz)
9. Maximo Paterno
3. Mariano Gomez (curate of Bacoor)
10. Crisanto Reyes
4. Feliciano Gomez
11. Ramon Maurente
5. Antonio Ma. Regidor (well know
12. Enrique Paraiso
lawyer and Counselor)
6. Joaquin Pardo de Tavera
(Government adviser)

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• The arrival of French, English,
American and Italian war vessels
added to the fears of the townspeople.
• Regimen of Filipino artillerymen was
disarmed and promptly placed on a
boat for Mindanao, and their place was
taken over 2000 soldiers who had been
sent from Spain.

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• The priests, the lawyers and the
businessmen who were denounced and
accused were brought before a special
military tribunal.
• Manuel Boscaza was selected to be the
fiscal or government persecutor.
• The military court decreed the
execution of the priests Jose Burgos,
Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora

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• One surnamed Saldua, who was
hopefully waiting for his pardon since it
was he who denounced the alleged
traitors to the government, was also
sentenced to be executed along with the
three priests.

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• Enrique Paraiso and Jose Basa
Enriquez were sentenced to ten years at
hard labor together the vicars
Mendoza, Guevara, Gomez (Feliciano),
Laza, Desiderio, Dandan, del Pilar as
well as lawyers and businessmen like
Regidor, Paterno, Padro, Mauricio
were banished to the Marianas for a
period of from two to eight years

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• A sergeant of the Guias, one of the most
notorious tulisanes was also excecuted
• The Spanish born(creoles), the mestizos
and the native alike were isolated from
or distrusful of one another.

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• February 15, 1872 - military court
rendered its decision on the case of the
three priests.
• A closed carriage brought the
condemned the preceeding day to the
chapel of Bagumbayan which was near
the place of execution.

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• The whole day of the February 15, up to
the morning of 16th, the people never
got tired of visiting the chapel where
the condemned were confined.

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• Funeral procession started.
 Saldua was the 1st to climb the garote
platform
 Padre Gomez was the next to be called
 Zamora climbed up to the platform, and did
nothing else but to place himself to the
hands of the executioner.
 Padre Gomez was the last to be called.

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• The vast multitude which heard the
protests of the last victim were
overcome with fear and sorrow.

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The Spanish Version of
The Cavite Mutiny of 1872
By Jose Montero y Vidal
Jose Montero y Vidal

✣ A Spaniard who wrote a version of the


Cavite Mutiny, which appeared in his book:
Historia General de Filipinas (Madrid, 1895,
Vol. III, pp.566-595).
✣ His version of the Cavite Mutiny
understandably showed a pro-Spanish bias,
which was called out by one of his critics;
Dr. T.H. Pardo de Tavera.

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Jose Montero y Vidal

✣ “[…] in narrating the Cavite episode, does not


speak as a historian; he speaks as a Spaniard bent
on perverting the facts at his pleasure; he is
mischievously partial.”
✣ Jose Montero y Vidal’s version was
unsupported by documentary evidence and
exaggerated.

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✣ The primary cause of the Cavite episode
was believed to be an order from
Governor-General Rafael de Izquierdo,
the successor of the appointee; former
Governor-General La Torre. An order
that abolishes the privileges once
enjoyed by the laborers of Cavite,
privilege in the form of tax exemption.

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✣ These laborers were also subjected to
perform forced labor called; polo y
servicio.
✣ The mutiny was sparked on January
20.

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✣ During the beginning of year 1872;
authorities received anonymous
communications with regards to an
uprising that would break out against
the Spaniards, the minute the fleet at
Cavite left for the south. However this
conspiracy was disregarded by
Spaniard authorities.

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✣ The conspiracy had been on going since
the days of La Torre.
✣ Principal leaders met at the houses of :
1. Filipino Spaniard D. Joaquin Padro de
Tavera.
2. Native priest, Jacinto Zamora.
✣ These meetings were attended by the
curate of Bacoor(Cavite).

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Garrison of Manila
✣ Garrison of Manila, mostly native soldiers, as well as
multitude civilians, were involved in this conspiracy
also.
✣ Their involvement was through assassinating:
1. Their officers.
2. Their masters
3. The servants
4. The escort of the Captain-General of Malacanang.

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Garrison of Manila

✣ It was arranged that uprising was to break


out in the evening of the 20th day of January,
however various circumstances upset the
plans and lead the conspiracy to failure.

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In the District of Sampaloc
✣ People were celebrating the
fiesta of the patron saint,
The Virgin of Loreto.
Celebration included
fireworks display and
rockets into the air, which
were mistakenly took by
those in Cavite as signal to
revolt.

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In the District of Sampaloc
✣ At 9:30 in the evening; 200 native
soldiers, under the leadership of Sergeant
La Madrid revolted, wherein, they
assassinated the commander of the fort
and wounded his wife.
✣ Military Governor of Cavite, D. Fernando
Rojas despatched 2 soldiers to inform
authorities in Manila, but instantly put to
death by natives, belonging to the Guias
established by La Torre.
50
✣ An employee of D. Domingo Mijares
successfully left Cavite for Manila to
inform authorities of what have
occurred, wherein information was
immediately relayed to Governor-
General Rafael de Izquierdo.

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✣ 21st day: (1) D. Felipe Ginoves
demanded rendition and waited the
entire day for the rebels to surrender
without ordering assault. (2) Ginoves
launched an assault against rebels.
✣ 22nd day: (1) Majority of the rebels were
imprisoned. (2) Official proclamation
announced the suppression of the revolt.

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• Don Jose Burgos (Instigators) • Gervasio Sanchez (Consejero
• D. Jacinto Zamora (Instigators) de Administracion)
• D. Mariano Gomez (Curates of the • Jose Mauricio de Leon
Cathedral) (Consejero de
Administracion)
• D. Antonio Maria Regidor (Curates
of Bacoor(Cavite)) • Enrique Paraiso (Lawyer)
• D. Joaquin Padro de Tavera • Jose Basa (Lawyer)
(Lawyer and Regidor of the • Pio Basa (Lawyer)
Ayutamiento) • Crisanto Resyes (Employee)
• Pedro Carillo (Consejero de • Maximo Paterno (Employee)
Administracion)

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✣ Under the council of wars: 41 of the
rebels were sentenced to death.
✣ 27th Day of January: Captain-General
fixed his “cumplase” on the sentence.
✣ 6th Day of February: 11 more of the
rebels were sentenced to death, but
commuted to life-imprisonment instead.

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✣ 8th Day of February: 11 individuals
were sentenced to 10 years of
imprisonment for the assassination of
the soldiers, tasked to relay information
regarding the occurrences on the night
of the 20th day of January.

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✣ 3rd Day of April: the Audiencia suspended
the following men from the practice of
Law:
1. D. Jose Basa y Enriquez
2. D. Joaquin Padro de Tavera
3. D. Antonio Ma. Regidor
4. D. Padre Carillo
5. D. Gervasio Sanchez
6. D. Jose Mauricio de Leon.

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✣ 4th Day of April: (1) Native regiment of
Artillery was dissolved, and (2)
Creation of an Artillery force to be
composed exclusively of Peninsulares,
both as request by Governor-General
Rafael de Izquierdo.

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✣ Sto. Domingo Church celebrated a
special mass on the arrival of requested
troops in Cavite.

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The Filipino Version of
The Cavite Mutiny of 1872
By Dr. T.H. Pardo de Tavera
✣ Provided by Dr. Trinidad Hermnegildo
Pardo de Tavera
⨳ A scholar, scientist, and historical
researchers
⨳ A member of Taft’s Philippine Commission
⨳ Founded the Federal Party
⨳ Died in Manila on March 26,1925, aged
68

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✣ Cavite Mutiny
⨳ Protest against the harsh policies of
Gobernador Heneral Rafael de Izquierdo.
⨳ Used as pretext by the Conservative
Spaniards

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✣ Gobernador Heneral Rafael de
Izquierdo
⨳ Took the position of Gobernador Heneral
Carlos Maria De La Torre
⨳ Those who have supports him, were
classified as personas suspechosas (suspects)
⨳ Govern the people “with a crucifix in one
hand and a sword in the other.”

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✣ First act – to prohibit the founding of a
school of arts and trades.
✣ Workmen should pay tribute and labor
on a public improvements.
⨳ Uprising among the soldiers in Cavite.

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✣ Mutiny in Cavite gave the conservative
element.
⨳ Strengthen the power of the Friars.
✣ Those who dared to oppose to the
Friars were punished.
⨳ - Executed the Fathers Mariano Gomez,
Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora.

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