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Submitted by

Rajeev tiwari(be/6064/16)
Vasu badyal(Be/6075/16)
Ankit gupta(Be/6087/16)

Prof. G.S.RAO
Prof. Vijay Mandal
 To find prestressed load on the bolted joint for
induced stresses in the bolt to be optimal & to find
appropriate joint stiffness factor by choosing suitable
material combination for component involved in the
Nut & Bolt joint.
 The following loading conditions will be considered
for the nut & bolt joint:
 Prestressed Bolted joint subjected to static load
 Prestressed Bolted joint subjected to Axial Fatigue
 A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins
or affixes two or more objects together.
 They can be made from metals, plastics or composites.
 Fasteners types:
 Removable: This type permits the parts to be readily disconnected
without damaging the fastener, e.g. nut and bolt.
 Semi-permanent: For this type, the parts can be disconnected,
but some damage usually occurs to the fastener, e.g. cotter pin.
 Permanent: When this type of fastener is used, the parts will never
be disassembled. e.g. rivets and welding.
 Removable Fastener:

 Semi-permanent Fastener:
 Permanent Fastener:
o Advantage:
o Easy to install
o Wide variety of standard parts
o Reversible up to some extent
o Operational efficiency and speed

o Disadvantages:
o loosening
o Failure under tensile loading
o Cost is higher than welding.
 Bolt is a shaft with a head on one end and threads on
the other
 A bolt is a type of fastener which is used to join two
parts together. The bolts join the part non-
permanently i.e. the parts may be separated from each
other by using an appropriate tool. Nuts are also used
on the bolts so as to make the fastening process more
 Bolts and nuts are available in right- and left-hand
 A bolt comprises of two parts and these are
1. Head: The upper portion of the bolt is called head. The head may
have different shapes. The shape of the head depends upon the
purpose for which the bolt is required.
2. Shank: The cylindrical portion of the bolt is called shank. The tail
end of the bolt is threaded to a sufficient length so that a nut can be
engaged on it.
Bolt Strengths or Grades
 Bolt strength is the amount of tightening force that
should be applied
 Bolts are made from different materials
 Have degrees of hardness for different situations
 Bolt grade markings are lines or numbers on top of the
head to identify hardness and strength
 Hardness or strength of metric bolts is indicated by a
property class indicator on bolt head
 Tensile strength is the amount of pressure bolt can
withstand before breaking when pulled apart
 The harder the bolt, the greater tensile strength
 Torque is a measurement of the turning force applied when
tightening a fastener
 Over-tightening can stretch or break a bolt
 Under-tightening can allow bolt or nut to loosen and fall
 Tighten fasteners in a crisscross pattern
 Tighten the fastener in steps, beginning at half-torque then
continue to ¾ torque, and then full torque at least twice
 Be careful when tightening bolts and nuts with air
 Easy to stretch or break a bolt in an instant
 Carbon steel and Alloy steel material used for Nut & Bolt
 Nut mfg by Blanking and Threading. Bolt by forging and
 Nickel Alloy Standard : ASTM / ASME SB 160 / 164 / 425 /
166 / 446 / 574 / 472 Grade : UNS 2200 / UNS 2201, UNS
4400 , UNS 8825 , UNS 6600
 Stainless Steel : Standard : ASTM / ASME A/SA 193 / 194
Grade : B 8 (304), B 8C (SS 347), B 8M (SS 316), B 8 T (SS
321), A 2, A 4
 Alloy Steel : Standard : ASTM / ASME A/SA 193 / 194 GR.
Grade : B 6, B 7/ B 7M, B 16, 2, 2HM, 2H, GR 6, B 7, B 7M.
 Overloading

 Fatigue

 Shearing
 Galling

 Galvanic corrosion

 Hydrogen Embrittlement
 Nut uses internal threads and an odd shaped head and
is tightened onto a bolt
 Castellated or slotted nuts are grooved on top to a
safety wire or cotter pin can be installed into a hole in
the bolt
 Castellated nuts are used with the studs that hold
wheel bearings in position
 Self-locking nuts produce friction when threaded onto
a bolt; top of the nut can be crimped inward
 Body nut has a washer formed onto the nut to
distribute the clamping force of the thin body panel or
trim piece to prevent warpage

Body nuts are specially designed for specific holding applications.

 Washers prevent damage to surface of parts and
provide better holding power
 Flat washers prevent smaller bolt heads from pulling
through sheet metal and plastic
 Wave washers add a spring action to keep parts from
rattling and loosening
 Body or fender washers have large outside diameter for
the size hole in them
 Have better holding power on thin metal and plastic
 Copper or brass washers prevent fluid leakage
 Spacer washers allow for the adjustment of parts
 Fiber washers prevent vibration or leakage but cannot
be tightened to a great extent
 Finishing washers have a curved shape for appearance
 Split lock washers are used under nuts to prevent
loosening by vibration
 Shakeproof or teeth lock washers have teeth or bent
lugs that grip both the work and the nut
 A very misunderstood part of bolting stuff together
is preload, which is the tension placed on the bolt by
the nut (as opposed to the load). A sufficiently high
preload will protect the bolt from fatigue as the load
changes, as the varying load will change the clamping
force on the bolted components, rather than the
tension on the bolt. (This is not strictly true, but for a
tinkerer like me, it's adequate.) As a rule of thumb, the
preload should exceed the maximum load by 15% or
 In order for this to work, however, the joint must be
stiffer than the bolt. For this reason, the shank of high-
tech bolts are often necked down to the same diameter
of the root of the thread. As long as it isn't thinner
than the root of the thread, it isn't any weaker than the
thread, and therefore doesn't effect overall bolt
strength, but it is significantly less stiff than the
original shank.
 There are two ways to measure preload on a bolt; a
torque wrench, and by measuring the angle the nut
has turned. Of the two, the latter is more accurate, as
friction plays a significant - and more
importantly, indeterminate - role when using a torque
 Torque = K × preload × diameter
 K, the so-called Nut Factor, usually varies between 0.3
and 0.1, and is very sensitive to a number of factors,
ranging from temperature to thread condition, even to
how fast the bolt is tightened.
 Measuring the angle the nut has turned is simply
measuring how much the bolt is stretching, equal to
the pitch (distance between threads) times the
number of turns. Using this requires that the
components being bolted don't compress much (or
compress a known amount), and that the "spring rate"
of the bolt be known.
 Turns = preload ÷ (spring rate × pitch)
 The standard bolt and nut joint were designed in
 ISO 4014 - Hexagon head bolts with shank
 BOLT : M10 - ISO4014 (Grade A)
d p b c l dw e k r s

10 1.5 26 0.15 50 14.6 17.77 6.4 0.4 15.73

 NUT : M10 – ISO 288-1 (Grade A)

d w (h14) m (h15) n (H14) s P

10 12 8 2.8 17 1.5
Design Data
 Washer: M10 – ISO 7090 (Grade A)

For Bolt Size D d s e

M10 21 10.5 2 0.6