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SUB TOPICS:

• ORIGIN AND DEFINITION OF PHENOMENOLOGY


• OBJECTIVE OF A PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
• TYPES OF PHENOMENOLOGY AND USAGE CRITERIA
• ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A PHENOMENOLOGICAL
RESEARCH
• SAMPLE AND DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY IN PHENOMENOLOGY
• DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY
ETYMOLOGY AND DEFINITION
PHENOMENOLOGY
• DERIVED FROM THE GREEK "PHAINOMENON", MEANING
"APPEARANCE". HENCE, IT IS THE STUDY
OF APPEARANCES AS OPPOSED TO REALITY.
• IT HAS ALSO BEEN DEFINED AS THE PHILOSOPHY OR
SCHOOL THAT EXPLAINS BEING AND CONSCIOUSNESS ON
THE BASIS OF THE ANALYSIS OF OBSERVABLE PHENOMENA
(LITCHMAN, 2006).
ETYMOLOGY AND DEFINITION
PHENOMENOLOGY
• THE SCIENCE OFPHENOMENA AS OPPOSED TO THE
SCIENCE OF BEING” (COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY
1991:1168)
• THUS,
PHENOMENOLOGY IS AN ATTEMPT TO DESCRIBE
LIVED EXPERIENCES WITHOUT MAKING PREVIOUS
ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT THE OBJECTIVE REALITY OF
THOSE EXPERIENCES (HOLLOWAY & WHEELER 1996:117).
OBJECTIVE OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL
RESEARCH
• TO DESCRIBE EXPERIENCES AS THEY ARE LIVED; IN OTHER
WORDS, THE “LIVED EXPERIENCES”.

• TO EXPLICATE THE MEANING, STRUCTURE, AND ESSENCE


OF THE LIVED EXPERIENCES OF A PERSON, OR A GROUP
OF PEOPLE, AROUND A SPECIFIC PHENOMENON.
OBJECTIVE OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL
RESEARCH
• PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH FURTHER EXAMINES
THE PARTICULAR EXPERIENCES OF UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS
IN A GIVEN SITUATION THUS EXPLORING NOT WHAT IS
(REALITY), BUT WHAT IT IS PERCEIVED TO BE (BURNS &
GROVE 1998:81)
TYPES OF PHENOMENOLOGY AND USAGE
CRITERIA
• DESCRIPTIVE OR HERMENEUTICAL PHENOMENOLOGY
REFERS TO THE STUDY OF PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AND
REQUIRES A DESCRIPTION OR INTERPRETATION OF THE
MEANINGS OF PHENOMENA EXPERIENCED BY PARTICIPANTS IN
AN INVESTIGATION.
TYPES OF PHENOMENOLOGY AND USAGE
CRITERIA
• EIDETIC (ESSENCE) OR TRANSCENDENTAL PHENOMENOLOGY
ANALYZES THE ESSENCES PERCEIVED BY
CONSCIOUSNESS WITH REGARD TO INDIVIDUAL
EXPERIENCES.
TYPES OF PHENOMENOLOGY AND USAGE
CRITERIA
• “EGOLOGICAL”, GENETIC OR CONSTITUTIONAL PHENOMENOLOGY
IT REFERS TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE SELF AS A
CONSCIOUS ENTITY. THIS TYPE OF PHENOMENOLOGY
APPEALS TO UNIVERSAL CONSCIOUSNESS.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A
PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
ADVANTAGES:
• IT IS A HIGHLY APPROPRIATE APPROACH TO
RESEARCHING HUMAN EXPERIENCE
• AS A RESEARCH METHOD, PHENOMENOLOGY IS A
RIGOROUS, CRITICAL, SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION
OF PHENOMENA
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A
PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
ADVANTAGES:
• IT CAN PROVIDE WITH A PROFOUND, DETAILED
UNDERSTANDING OF A SINGLE PHENOMENA
• CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW
THEORIES
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A
PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
DISADVANTAGES:
• DATA GATHERING CAN TAKE UP A GREAT DEAL
OF TIME AND RESOURCES
• ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA MAY
BE DIFFICULT
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A
PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
DISADVANTAGES:
• ESTABLISHING THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
OF THE APPROACHES CAN BE CHALLENGING
• RESEARCH-INDUCED BIAS CAN INFLUENCE
STUDIES
SAMPLE AND DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY IN
PHENOMENOLOGY
• PURPOSIVE SAMPLING
CHARACTERIZED BY THE INCORPORATION OF
SPECIFIC CRITERIA MET BY THE PARTICIPANTS AT
THE MOMENT OF SELECTION
SAMPLE AND DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY IN
PHENOMENOLOGY
• PROFOUND INTERVIEW
CAN EITHER BE OPEN OR SEMI-STRUCTURED.
THE MAIN FOCUS OF THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL
INTERVIEW IS THE DESCRIPTION OF THE MEANINGS
OF PHENOMENA.
SAMPLE AND DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY IN
PHENOMENOLOGY

• PROFOUND INTERVIEW
IS COMPLEX AND REQUIRES A GREAT DEAL
OF TIME TO SCRUTINIZE THE STUDIED
PHENOMENON WITH THE NECESSARY DEPTH.
SAMPLE AND DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY IN
PHENOMENOLOGY

• SKILLS TO BE CONSIDERED DURING THE


INTERVIEW:
 PARAPHRASING
 CLARIFICATION
 SUMMARIZING
SAMPLE AND DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY IN
PHENOMENOLOGY
• SKILLS TO BE CONSIDERED DURING THE
INTERVIEW:
 REFLECTION OF FEELINGS
 SELF-REVELATION
 EMPATHETIC LISTENING
DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY
DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY IS CHARACTERIZED BY THE
FOLLOWING PROCEDURES:
• TEXTUAL ANALYSIS
REFERS TO THE DESCRIPTION OF WHAT IS EXPRESSED BY
THE PARTICIPANTS.
DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY
DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY IS CHARACTERIZED BY THE
FOLLOWING PROCEDURES:
• STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
REFERS TO THE INTERPRETATION OF HOW IT IS EXPRESSED
BY THE PARTICIPANTS.
DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY
WHILE IT IS TRUE THAT BOTH TYPES OF
ANALYSIS (TEXTUAL AND STRUCTURAL) ARE
FUNDAMENTAL IN THE INTERPRETATION OF THE
FINDINGS, STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS PLAYS A VITAL
ROLE AS A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF THE
SCAFFOLDING OF PHENOMENOLOGY.
DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY
CRESWELL (2013) DESCRIBES THE FOLLOWING STEPS TO
ELABORATE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS:

1. THE RESEARCHER DESCRIBES HIS OR HER OWN EXPERIENCE


WITH THE OBJECT OF STUDY IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY PERSONAL
JUDGMENTS AND PREJUDICES SO THAT THEY DON’T AFFECT
THE PROCESS OF ANALYSIS.
DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY
CRESWELL (2013) DESCRIBES THE FOLLOWING STEPS TO
ELABORATE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS:

2. THE RESEARCHER PROCEEDS WITH THE “HORIZONTALIZATION”


OF DATA. THIS REFERS TO THE PROCESS WHEREIN THE
RESEARCHERS LISTS EACH OF THE RELEVANT QUOTES OF THE
STUDIED TOPIC AND GIVES THEM EQUAL VALUE WITH REGARD
TO THE EXPRESSIONS OF THE GROUP.
DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY
CRESWELL (2013) DESCRIBES THE FOLLOWING STEPS TO
ELABORATE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS:

3. THE RESEARCHER GROUPS THE RELEVANT TOPICS INTO


UNITS OF MEANING.
4. THE RESEARCHER WRITES THE TEXTUAL DESCRIPTION
AND INCLUDES “ADVERBATIM” QUOTATIONS.
DATA ANALYSIS IN PHENOMENOLOGY
CRESWELL (2013) DESCRIBES THE FOLLOWING STEPS TO
ELABORATE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS:

5. THE RESEARCHER WRITES THE STRUCTURAL


DESCRIPTION.
6. FINALLY, ACCORDING TO THE TEXTUAL AND STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS, THE RESEARCHER PROCEEDS TO IDENTIFY THE
ESSENCE OF THE PHENOMENON.
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!
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