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CHAPTER III: Managing and Caring for the Self

LESSON
Do Not Just Dream,
Make It Happen
2
Dessalyn Jane D. Sing * April Faith F. Sucuano * Zea Oryza Sinipete
REPORTERS

UNDERSTANDING THE SELF


LESSON OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this lesson, you
should be able to:
1. use Bandura's self-efficacy theory
for self assessment;
2. differentiate growth and fixed
mindset by Dweck; and
3. design personal goals adopting
Locke's goal setting theory.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


INTRODUCTION
Jack Canfield is an
epitome of success. He has
authored seven books
listed in the Guinness Book
of World Records as New
York Times Bestseller,
beating Stephen King
(Macmillan, 2017).

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


"By taking the time to stop and appreciate
who you are and what you have achieved - and
perhaps learned through a few mistakes,
stumbles and losses - you actually can enhance
everything about you. Self-acknowledgement
and appreciation are what give you the insights
and awareness to move forward toward higher
goals and accomplishments.“
-Jack Canfield

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


ACTIVITY: 5-10-20 Selfie
On each designated box, draw your envisioned
“Future Self.” Who would you be:

FIVE TEN TWENTY


years from years from years from
now now now

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


Albert E. Bandura’s Self-efficacy

Dr. Bandura was named the most


influential of all time.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


THE BOBO DOLL EXPERIMENT
(1950s)
This experiment has proven right the
hypothesis that social modeling is a very
effective way of learning. Dr. Bandura
introduced the social learning theory that
focuses on what people learn from observing
and interacting with other people. Bandura’s
social cognitive theory states that people are
active participants in their environment and
are not simply shaped by that environment.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


SUMMARY OF
SELF-EFFICACY THEORY
Weibell (2011)

“Self-efficacy theory is based on the


assumption that psychological
procedures serve as a means of
creating and strengthening
expectations od personal efficacy.”

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


SUMMARY OF SELF-EFFICACY THEORY Weibell (2011)

Self-efficacy theory distinguishes between


expectations of efficacy and response-outcome
expectancies.
1. Efficacy Expectation
- is a person’s estimate that a given behavior
will lead to certain outcomes.
2. Outcome Expectancy
- is the conviction that one can successfully
execute, the behavior required to produce an
outcome.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


SUMMARY OF SELF-EFFICACY THEORY Weibell (2011)
Dr. Bandura identified acts of people with
“high assurance with their capabilities,” such as:
1. Approach difficult tasks as challenges to be
mastered;
2. Set challenging goals and maintain strong
commitment to them;
3. Heighten or sustain efforts in the face of failures
or setbacks;
4. Attribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient
knowledge and skills which are acquirable; and
5. Approach threatening situations with assurance
that they can exercise control over them.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


SUMMARY OF SELF-EFFICACY THEORY Weibell (2011)
Dr. Bandura identified acts of people “who
doubt their capabilities,” such as:
1. Shy away from tasks they view as personal threats;
2. Have low aspirations and weak commitment to goals
they choose to pursue.
3. Dwell on personal deficiencies, obstacles they will
encounter, and all kinds of adverse outcomes, rather
than concentrating on how to perform successfully;
4. Slacken their efforts and give up quickly in the face of
difficulties;
5. Are slow to recover their sense of efficacy following
failure or setbacks; and
6. Fall easy victim to stress and depression.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


SUMMARY OF SELF-EFFICACY THEORY Weibell (2011)

4 Main Sources Of Influence by


Which a Person's Self-efficacy is
Developed And Maintained
1. Performance accomplishments
or mastery experiences;
2. Vicarious experiences;
3. Verbal or social persuasion; and
4. Physiological (somatic and
emotional) states

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


Carol S. Dweck's Fixed and Growth
Mindset Theory

Dr. Dweck research focused on why


people succeed and how to foster success.
Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen
2 TYPES of MINDSET
1. FIXED MINDSET
(have a "fixed" theory of intelligence)
- people who believe that success is based
on their innate abilities.
2. GROWTH MINDSET
(have growth theory intelligence)
- people who believe that success is based
on hard work, learning, training, and
perseverance.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


In a fixed mindset, students
believe their basic abilities, their
intelligence, their talents are just
fixed traits. They have a certain
amount and that's that, and their
goals becomes to look smart all
the time and never look dumb.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


In the growth mindset,
students understand that their
talents and abilities can be
developed through effort, good
teaching and persistence. They
don't necessarily think everyone's
the same or anyone can be
Einstein, but they believe everyone
can get smarter if they work for it.
Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen
Edwin A. Locke's Goal Setting
Theory

Dr. Locke is internationally known for his


research on goal setting.
Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen
Locke (1996) first described that the
approach of goal setting theory is based
on what Aristotle called final causality;
that is, action caused by a purpose. It
accepts the axiomatic status of
consciousness and volition. It also
assumes that introspective reports
provide useful and valid data for
formulating psychological concepts and
measuring psychological phenomena.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


INTERNAL AND AN EXTERNAL
ASPECTS OF GOALS
1. INTERNALLY
- they are ideas (desired ends).
2. EXTERNALLY
- they refer to the object or condition
sought (e.g., a job, a sale, a certain
performance level).

The idea guides action to attain the object.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


TWO BROAD ATTRIBUTES
OF GOALS
1.CONTENT
- the actual object sought.
2. INTENSITY
- the scope, focus, and complexity,
among others of the choice process.

The basic contents of goal


setting theory are summarized in
terms of 14 categories of findings.
Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen
14 RESEARCH FINDINGS

1. The more difficult the goal, the greater


the achievement.
2. The more specific or explicit the goal, the
more precisely performance is regulated.
3. Goals that are both specific and difficult
lead to the highest performance.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


14 RESEARCH FINDINGS
4. Commitment to goals is most critical when
goals are specific and difficult.
5. High commitment to goals is attained
when:
a. the individual is convinced that the
goal is important; and
b. the individual is convinced that the
goal is attainable (or that, at least,
progress can be made toward it).
Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen
14 RESEARCH FINDINGS
6. In addition to having a direct effect on
performance, self efficacy influences:
a. the difficulty level of the goal chosen
or accepted;
b. commitment to goals;
c. the response to negative feedback or
failure; and
d. the choice of task strategies.
Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen
14 RESEARCH FINDINGS
7. Goal setting is most effective when there is
feedback that shows progress in relation to the
goal.
8. Goal setting (along with self-efficacy) mediates
the effect of knowledge of past performance on
subsequent performance.
9. Goals affect performance by affecting the
direction of action, the degree of effort exerted,
and the persistence of action over time.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


14 RESEARCH FINDINGS

10. Goals stimulate planning in general. Often, the


planning quality is higher than that which occurs
without goals. When people possess task or goal-
relevant plans as a result of experience or training,
they activate them automatically when confronted
with a performance goal. Newly learned plans or
strategies are most likely to be utilized under the
stimulus of specific, difficult goal.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


14 RESEARCH FINDINGS
11. When people strive for goals on complex tasks,
they are at least effective in discovering suitable
task strategies if:
a. they have no prior experience or training
on the task;
b. there is high pressure to perform well; and
c. there is high time pressure (to perform
well immediately).

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


14 RESEARCH FINDINGS

12. Goals (including goal commitment), in


combination with self-efficacy, mediate or
partially mediate the effects of several personality
traits and incentives on performance.
13. Goal-setting and goal-related mechanisms can
be trained and/or adopted in the absence of
training for the purpose of self-regulation.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


14 RESEARCH FINDINGS

14. Goals serve as standards of self-satisfaction,


with harder goals demanding higher
accomplishments in order to attain self-
satisfaction than easy goals. Goals can also be used
to enhanced task interest, reduce boredom, and
promote goal clarity. When used to punish or
intimidate people, however, goals increased stress
and anxiety.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


REFERENCES:
Bandura, Albert. 1994. "Self-efficacy." In V.S. Ramachaudran
(Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Behaviour (Vol. 4, pp. 71-
78). New York:Academic Press. (Reprinted in H.
Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of Mental Health. San
Diego: Academic Press, 1998).
Brown, Joel. 2016. "34 Thought Provoking Jack Canfield Quotes."
In Addicted 2 Success. Accessed October 30, 2017.
https://addicted2success.com/quotes/34-quotes-
provoking-jack-canfield-quotes/.
Canfield, Jack. 2017. "Maximizing Your Potential." Self-Esteem
Seminars. Accessed October 30,2017.
https://jackcanfield.com/about-jack-canfield/.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


REFERENCES:
Kendra, Cherry. 2017. "Albert Bandura Biography: His Life, Work
and Theories." Verywell. Accessed October 30, 2017.
https://www.verywell.com/albert-bandura-biography-
1925-2795537.
Kendra, Cherry. 2017. "Albert Bandura Quotes: His Thoughts on
Sef-Efficacy, Social Learning, Social Cognition, and more."
Verywell. Accessed October 30, 2017.
https://www.verywell.com/albert-bandura-quotes-
2795687.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


REFERENCES:
Locke, Edwin. 1996. "Motivation through Conscious Goal
Setting." Applied and Preventive Psychology Vol. 5:117-
124.1996. Accessed October 30, 2017.
http://www.sehity.com/uploads/4/2/2/4/42243697/lock
e_-_1996_-
_motivation_through_concious_goal_setting.pdf.
Locke, Edwin. n.d. "Edwin Locke: Introduction." Accessed
October 30, 2017. http://www.ed winlocke.com/.
Macmillan Publishers. n.d. "Jack Canfield" Accessed October 30,
2017. https://us.macmillan.com/author/jackcanfield.
Mindset. n.d. "Carol Dweck." Accessed October 30, 2017.
https://mindsetonline.com/abouttheauthor/.

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


REPORTERS
Dessalyn Jane D. Sing
Zea Oryza Sinipete
April Faith F. Sucuano

INSTRUCTOR
Prof. Richard H. Pimentel

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen


THE END

Lesson 2: Do Not Just Dream, Make It Happen

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