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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

The Learning Objectives


At the end of the lesson, students are able
to:
1.Analyze the sentence of direct and indirect
speech correctly;
2.Compose sentences using reported
speech/indirect speech well;
3.Find the direct and indirect speech from
the news item text.
Before we start let’s listen to the
breaking news.
D:\TRI RATNA SCHOOL\grade 12\direct
speech\190730-tv-news_5s.mp3
Are there any direct and
indirect speech in the
breaking news?
UNIT 2
DIRECT - INDIRECT SPEECH
• If we reproduce of another person’s actual
words, we can use in two ways, namely : by using
“direct speech” and “indirect speech”.
• 1. Direct Speech.
• Direct speech is a form of original sentence from
• someone’s opinion without undergoing any changes.
• The constructions of direct speech in general consists
• of two parts of sentences :
• a. Main clause which is called “reporting verb”
• b. Sub clause which is called “reported words”.
• 2. Indirect Speech.
• Indirect speech or reported speech tells
• about the main discussion or opinion of
• someone that is as a compound sentence
• which consists of main clause and sub clause
• separated by certain conjunctions and sub
• clause by means of some changes
3. The change of time and place from direct speech
to indirect speech when the main clause in the
Past Tense, namely :
• tomorrow becomes - the day after/ the following day
• tomorrow night “ - the night after/ the following night
• tomorrow morning “ - the morning after/ the following
• morning
• next week “ - the week after/ the following week
• next month “ - the month after/ the following
• month
• next year “ - the year after/ the following year
• now “ - then
• today “ - that day
• this week becomes - that week
• this month “ - that month
• this year “ - that year
• this morning “ - that morning
• yesterday - the day before/ the previous day
• last night “ - the night before/ the previous night
• last week “ - the week before/ the previous week
• last month “ - the month before/ the previous
• month
• last year “ - the year before/ the previous year
• ago “ - before
• this “ - that
• these “ - those
• Here “ - there
The forms of Direct and Indirect Speech as follow :
• A. Command and Request.
• Examples :
• 1. He said to me, ”Do your homework !”
• = He asked me to do my homework.
• 2. He said to her, ”Come here !”
• = He told her to come there
• 3. He said to them, ”Bring your note books when you
• went to school !”
• = He ordered them to bring their notebooks when
• they went to school.
• 4. He said to me, ”Please sit down !”
• = He asked me to sit down
B. Negative Command.
• Examples :
• 1. I said to him, ”Don’t worry !”
• = I asked him not to worry
• 2. The doctor said to me, ”Don’t go out at night !”.
• = The doctor advised me not to go out at night
• 3. He said to her, ”Don’t leave the house when I am away !”.
• = He told her not to leave the house when he was away.
• 4. Our teacher said, ”Don’t cheat when you have
• examination !”.
• = Our teacher requested us not to cheat when we had
• examination.
Note :
• 1. The reporting verbs that are used to change direct speech to
• indirect speech are : tell, ask, order, command, request,
• advise, etc.
• 2. Infinitive without to in the direct speech becomes to infinitive in
• the indirect speech
• 3. If direct speech uses the word “please” to refine the form of
• command and we want to change it into indirect speech, so the
• word “please” must be omitted.
• 4. In the form of negative imperative by using “Don’t” which is followed
• by “infinitive without to” in the direct speech, and we want to
• change it into indirect speech must be changed to
• become “Not to infinitive” (see the sentences in part “B” above,(
• no. 1 - 4 ).
Task : 1
Change the following sentences into indirect speech !
• Example :
• I said to them, ”Open your books !”.
• = I asked them to open their books.
• 1. “Don’t worry about me, please !”. (Agus told his mother .….…….……)
• 2. “Wait here until I come !”. (He told me ………………..…………….….)
• 3. “Tell me what you want !”. (Ali told her ………………………………....)
• 4 “Behave yourselves !”. (She told us .……………………….…………….)
• 5. “Don’t spend your money only on cigarette !”. (My mother told me …)
• 6. “Drive as fast as you can !”. (I asked her ………………………..…...…)
• 7. “Be a good boy !”. ( I told John ……………………….…….……….…...)
• 8. “Don’t go without me !”. (He told Alice ……………..….………….…….)
• 9. “Wash your shirt !”. Mother asked her son …………………….....….…)
• 10. “Don’t bring your bag with you !”. (I told her ………..……………….…)
2. The change of tense in the indirect speech when
the main clause is in the Past Tense :
• PATTERN :
• DIRECT SPEECH becomes INDIRECT SPEECH
• a. Simple Present Tense “ Simple Past Tense
• (Subject + Verb-1+s/es + ... ) “ (Subject + Verb-2 + .... )
• Example :
• He said, ”I go to school” “ = He said that he went to
• school

• b. Simple Past Tense “ Past Perfect Tense
• (Subject + Verb-2 + ..... ) (Subject + Had + Verb-3 + .... )
• Example :
• He said, ”I went to school” “ = He said that he had gone to
• school
e. Present Continuous Tense “ Past Continuous Tense
• (Subject + Am + Verb-ing ) (Subject + Was + Verb-ing)
• Is Were
• Are
• Example :
• He said,” I am doing my duty = He said that he was doing his
• duty

• f. Past Continuous Tense “ Past Perfect Continuous Tense
• (Subject + Was/Were + V-ing) (Subject + Had + Been + V-ing)
• Example :
• He said,” I was doing my duty” He said that he had been doing
• his duty
• g. Future Tense “ Past Future Tense
• (Subject + Will + V-1 + ... ) “ (Subject + Would + V-1 + ...)
• Shall Should
• Example :
• He said,” I will do my duty” “ = He said that he would do his
• duty

• h. Present Modal “ Past Modal
• (Subjcet + can + V-1 + ...) “ (Subject + could + V-1 + .. )
• may might
• must had to
• Example :
• He said,” I can do my duty”. “ = He said that he could do his
• duty

Reported Questions
l Introduced with verbs :
asked, inquired, wondered, wanted to know,
tried to find out, etc
l NEVER introduced with “said”
l Relative pronoun “that” is NEVER
used
l “?” is replaced by “.” at the end
l There are two types:
l Beginning with question words
l Not beginning with question words
Beginning with
E.g.1.
question words
“Where have you been this afternoon?”
the mother asked her son.

The mother asked her son where he had been


that afternoon.
Beginning with
question words
E.g.2.
“Which subject you like most?” the
teacher asked the students.

The teacher asked the students which subject


they liked most.
* Note: Subject comes before the verb.
Not beginning with question
words

E.g.1.
“Did you watch TV last night?” Tom asked
me.

Tom asked me whether I had watched TV the


night before.
Not beginning with question
words
E.g.2.
“Can you answer this question?” the
teacher asked John.

The teacher asked John if he could answer that


question.
Note :
• 1. When the direct speech is in the positive (statement)
• / negative, which is changed in the indirect speech,
• the conjunction must be used, is “that”.
• 2. When reporting verb (said) in the direct speech is
• not followed by object, and we change it into indirect
• speech, the verb “said”, there is no change.
• 3. But when the reporting verb (said) is followed by
• object, so the verb “said” must be changed by “told”
Task : 2
Change the following sentences into indirect speech !
• Example :
• He said, ”I will do my homework”.
• = He said that he would do his homework.
• 1. John said, “Mary, your book is on the table”.
• 2. Tono said, “I have to work hard to day”.
• 3. He said, “The doctor pulled out two of my teeth last week”.
• 4. They say, “We are learning English Grammar”.
• 5. Tutik said, “Alice, your father will be angry if you come late”
• 6. Mary said, “I visited my parents yesterday”.
• 7. She said to her husband, “Our Television needs repairing”.
• 8. Mary said to John, “You did not come on time this morning”.
• 9. John said, “I am a student and I have studied for three years”.
• 10. Mother says to her son and daughter, “You are very diligent”
D. The interrogative form of Direct Speech without using
question words (Yes/No, Question).
• Examples :
• 1. Mary said to me, ”Do you go to school today ?”
• = Mary asked me if/whether I went to school that day.
• 2. The teacher said to her, ”Did you do your homework last night ?”.
• = The teacher asked her if/whether she had done her homework the
• night before.
• 3. Mother asked him, ”Have you cleaned your room ?”
• = Mother asked him if/whether he had cleaned his room.
• 4. I said to them, ”Are you studying English now ?”
• = I wanted to know if/whether they were studying English then
Note :
• 1. When the direct speech is in the interrogative form,
• whether it uses question word or not, if the main clause
• uses : said (reporting verb), and we change it into indirect
• speech, so the verb “said” must be changed by reporting
• verbs : ask, inquire, wonder, want to know etc
• 2. In the direct speech without using question words, (Yes/No
• Question), when we change it into indirect speech, we
• must use the conjunction of : if/whether.
• 3. When the direct speech is changed into indirect speech,
• the interrogative construction must be returned in the
• positive forms.
Task : 3
Change the following sentences into indirect speech !
• Example :
• “Do you see Mr. John passing here ?”. He said to me.
• = He asked me if I saw Mr. John passing there.
• 1. The man asks me, ”Did you hear a loud crash ?”.
• 2. I said to her, ”Will your father and mother be back by 11 o’clock ?”.
• 3. I said, ”Can the gardener begin his work on Saturday ?”.
• 4. They said to them, ”Did you succeed in making him change his mind ?”.
• 5. She says to him, ”Was your holiday quiet and peaceful ?”.
• 6. He asked me, ”May I borrow your book ?”.
• 7. They said, ”Can you come tomorrow, John ?”.
• 8 .Caroline said, Will you help me, Mary ?”
• 9. John says to her, ”Do you want me to help you ?”.
• 10. The teacher said to him, ”Did you see me at the bookstore yesterday ?”.
E. Interrogative form in the Direct Speech by using
question words
• Examples :
• 1. My mother said to me, ”When do you do your
• homework ?”.
• = My mother asked me when I did my homework.
• 2. Father said to me, ”Where did you go last week ?”.
• = Father wanted to know where I had gone the week
• before.
• 3. The doctor said to me, ”How long have you been ill ?”.
• = The doctor asked me how long I had been ill.
• 4. He said to John, ”What are you doing now ?”.
• = He asked John what he was doing then.
Note :
• 1. When the direct speech in the question forms by using
• question words and we change into indirect speech, so
• the conjunction that is used, is the question word itself.
• 2. The construction in the indirect speech must be
• returned in the positive forms.
• 3. The verbs “said” and “asked” can be followed by or
• without object.
• 4. The verbs : inquire, wonder, want to know, cannot be
• followed by object.
Task : 4
Change the following sentences into indirect speech !
• Example :
• I said to him, ”When do you go to Surabaya ?”.
• = I asked him when he went to Surabaya.
• 1. “Where did you hide the key ?”. I said to my brother.
• 2. He said, ”When will you return, Mary ?”
• 3. Mother asks me, ”How did you get into the room ?”.
• 4. The policeman said, ”How many of the books were stolen ?”.
• 5. The doctor said to my little sister, ”How old are you ?”.
• 6. The teacher says to his students, ”Whose pencil is this ?”.
• 7. John asked, ”Why was Mr. Jack angry ?”
• 8. The teacher said, ”Why don’t the students finish their work quickly ?”.
• 9. John said, ”whom did you see at the station yesterday, Jane ?”.
• 10. David said to me, ”Which one do you like best ?”.