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Demographic of Malaysia
• Population:
31,381,992 (July 2017 est.)

• Nationality:

• Ethnic groups:
Bumiputera 61.7% (Malays and indigenous
peoples, including Orang Asli, Dayak, Anak
Negeri), Chinese (20.8%), Indian (6.2%), other
(0.9%), non-citizens( 10.4%) (2017 est.)

• Religions:
Muslim (official) (61.3%), Buddhist (19.8%),
Christian (9.2%), Hindu (6.3%), Confucianism,
Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions (1.3%),
other (0.4%), none (0.8%), unspecified (1%) (2010 est.)
• Climate:
Tropical weather
System of Government in Malaysia

• Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy. Its government system closely

resembles the Westminster parliamentary system while the jurisdictions of the
country are based on the common law. The state is categorized as a representative
democracy. The Federal Government has its headquarter in Kuala Lumpur while
the federal executive of Malaysia is in Putrajaya.
Background of Malaysia
• Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country occupying parts of the Malay Peninsula and the island of
• Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia

• In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula formed the Federation of Malaya,
which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies
of Singapore and the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo
joined the Federation.
Economic Policy of Malaysia

• Malaysia's economic system is principally a laissez-faire, free economy with

government control for national interests and for realignment of national wealth,
focusing on trade, investment, manufacturing, and services.
Fiscal Policy of Malaysia

• Malaysia follows an explicit fiscal policy rule that disallows an operating deficit in any given year.
This aims at making a credible commitment to long term fiscal sustainability by applying discipline
to annual budgets.

• Based on the executive report by bank Negara Malaysia (BNM), Malaysia is moving from a resource
based economy into more service centric economy as most of high-income nations globally.
Malaysia’s Status

• Malaysia's gross domestic product (GDP), per capita income, level of industrialization and overall
standard of living are not on par with other developed nations. With a GDP per capita of $9,766
and an HDI of 0.78 currently, Malaysia is classified as an emerging economy by the World Bank.

• Therefore, the Malaysia listed in the “Developing Countries.”

Demographic of Iran
• Population:
83,165,973 (est. 2019)

• Nationality:

• Ethnic groups:
Persian (61%), Azeri (16%), Kurd (10%), Lor (6%),
Baluch (2%), Arab(2%), Turkoman Turkic Tribes (2%)
Other (1%)

• Religions:
Muslim (89.9%), Sunni (8.3%), Bahai (1.8%)

• Climate:
Hot and Dry Climate
System of Government in Iran

• Its framework that officially combines elements of Theocracy and Presidential democracy.

• Iran has a democratically elected president, a parliament (or Majlis), an Assembly of Experts which
elects the Supreme Leader, and local councils. According to the constitution, all candidates running
for these positions must be vetted by the Guardian Council before being elected. Iran has a
democratically elected president, a parliament (or Majlis), an Assembly of Experts which elects
the Supreme Leader, and local councils. According to the constitution, all candidates running for
these positions must be vetted by the Guardian Council before being elected.
Background of Iran
• Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman.

• Tehran is the capital of Iran

• Iran was always known as 'Persia' to foreign governments and was once heavily influenced by Great Britain and
Russia. In 1935, however, the Iranian government requested that all countries with which it had diplomatic relations
call the country by its Persian name, Iran.
Economic Policy of Iran

• Iran's economy is characterized by the hydrocarbon sector, agriculture and services sectors, and a
noticeable state presence in manufacturing and financial services. Iran ranks second in the world
in natural gas reserves and fourth in proven crude oil reserves.
Fiscal Policy of Iran
• Iran’s fiscal system is composed of taxes, transfers, subsidies, and pensions which are briefly
described in the Figure:
Iran’s Status

• Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector.

• Therefore, Iran listed in the “Developing Countries.”

Demographic of Philippines
• Population:
108,462,046 (est. 2019)

• Nationality:

• Ethnic groups:
Tagalog 28.1% Cebuano, 13.1% Ilocano, 9%
Bisaya, 7.6% Hiligaynon, 7.5% Bikol, 6% Waray,
3.4% Other, 25.3%
• Religions:
Roman Catholic Christians 81%, Others 11%, Muslim

• Climate:
Tropical weather
System of Government in Philippines

• The Philippines is a republic with a presidential form of government wherein power is equally
divided among its three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
Background of Philippines
• is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641
islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon,
Visayas and Mindanao.

• Manila is the capital of Philippines

• The Philippines were claimed in the name of Spain in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer
sailing for Spain, who named the islands after King Philip II of Spain. They were then called Las Felipinas.
Economic Policy of Philippines

• The Philippines has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom,
combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation.
Fiscal Policy of Philippines

• The Philippine government’s main source of revenue are taxes, with some non-tax revenue also
being collected. To finance fiscal deficit and debt, the Philippines relies on both domestic and
external sources.
Philippine’s Status

• As of 2016, per capita GDP in the Philippines is $7,358, well below any accepted minimum
for developed country status.
• Therefore, Philippines listed in the “Developing Countries.”
Demographic of Peru
• Population:
32,620,508 (est. 2019)

• Nationality:

• Ethnic groups:
Mestizo (59.5%) Quechua (22.7%) Aymara (2.7%)
Amazonian (1.8%) Black/Mulatto (1.6%) white (4.9%)
and other (6.7%).

• Religions:
Roman Catholic 81.3% Evangelical 12.5% Other 3.8%
Unspecified or none 2.9%

• Climate:
Warm-temperate climate
System of Government in Peru

• Peru is a presidential republic with three branches of government. It follows the principle of
separation of powers and independence of its three branches: the executive, legislature, and the
judiciary. The president is the highest representative of the executive while the National
Congress is Unicameral.
Background of Peru
• is a country in South America that's home to a section of Amazon rainforest and Machu Picchu, an
ancient Incan city high in the Andes mountains.

• Lima is the capital of Peru

• Peru is the third-largest country in South America. Peru is the world's second-largest producer of
cocaine. There are almost 4,000 native varieties of Peruvian potatoes.
Economic Policy of Peru

• Peru has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with
centralized economic planning and government regulation.
Fiscal Policy of Peru

• Faced with slower GDP growth in 2014 and 2015, Peru is working to reinvigorate economic expansion through a
series of counter-cyclical fiscal measures, aimed at developing infrastructure and education in particular.
However, these spending packages have so far met with mixed results and will likely require more time to yield
the broader benefits envisaged.
Peru’s Status

• Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank and is the 39th largest in the world by
total GDP.

• Therefore, Peru is listed to “Developing Countries.”

Demographic of Venezuela
• Population:
28,482,073 (est. 2019)

• Nationality:

• Ethnic groups:
50% Mestizo 42.5% European descent 3.5% African
descent 2.5% indigenous 1.2% other groups

• Religions:
71% are Roman Catholic 17% are Protestant

• Climate:
Warm-temperate climate
System of Government in Venezuela

• Venezuela is a federal presidential republic. The chief executive is the President of Venezuela who
is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the President.
Background of Venezuela
• is a country on the northern coast of South America with diverse natural attractions. Along its
Caribbean coast are tropical resort islands including Isla de Margarita and the Los Roques

• Caracas is the capital of Venezuela

• Venezuela has been considered the Bolivarian Republic following the adoption of the new
Constitution of 1999, when the state was renamed in honor of Simón Bolívar.
Economic Policy of Venezuela

• Venezuela is the sixth largest member of OPEC by oil production. Since the 1920s, Venezuela has
been a rentier state, offering oil as its main export.[21] From the 1950s to the early 1980s, the
Venezuelan economy experienced a steady growth that attracted many immigrants, with the nation
enjoying the highest standard of living in Latin America.
Fiscal Policy of Venezuela

• The Venezuelan government is using extra income they have from high petroleum earnings and
spending it on national development. In total, the government is spending 12.6 billion bolivars,
which is $2.9 billion in the US.
Venezuela’s Status

• Oil was discovered in Venezuela during World War I, and shifted the country's entire economy away
from agriculture export.

• Therefore, Venezuela is listed to “Developing Countries.”