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Crude oil is a naturally occurring substance derived from the decomposition

over thousands of years of plant and animal organic matter under elevated
temperature and pressure.

It is a complex combination of hydrocarbons consisting predominantly of

paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons.

The composition of crude oils from different producing regions, and even from
within a particular geological formation, can vary widely.

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Oil Tankers
Class Length Beam Draft Deadweight Tonnage

Product tanker 10,000–60,000

Panamax 205 m 29 m 16 m 60,000–80,000 DWT

Aframax 245 m 34 m 20 m 80,000–120,000 DWT

Suezmax 285 m 45 m 23 m 125,000 – 180,000 DWT (Suez Canal max capacity)

320,000 DWT (Suez Canal can accommodate some in

VLCC 330 m 55 m 28 m
its expanded dimensions)

ULCC 415 m 63 m 35 m OilOver

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320,000 DWT, some reach over 550,000 DWT
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• Liquid petroleum that is pumped out of an oil well
is called “crude oil” or “crude.”
• Crude oils range from light coloured oils to thick,
black oil similar to melted tar.
• The petroleum industry often names crude based
on the oil's geographical source; for example
“West Texas Intermediate.”
• Crude oils are also classified based on physical
characteristics and chemical composition using
terms such as “sweet” or “sour,” “light” or

• Composed predominantly of carbon, crude oil
contains approximately 84-87 percent carbon and
11-13 percent hydrogen.
• Crude oil also contains varying amounts of
oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, helium and salts in
varying proportions depending on their source.
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API gravity
• Crudes are classified and priced by density and
sulphur content. Crude density is commonly
measured by API gravity. API gravity provides a
relative measure of crude oil density

• API stands for the American Petroleum Institute,

which is the major United States trade
association for the oil and natural gas industry.

• One of the most important standards that the

API has set is the method used for measuring
the density of petroleum. This standard is called
the API gravity.

• Specific gravity is a ratio of the density of one

substance to the density of a reference
substance, usually water.
• The API gravity is the standard specific gravity
used by the oil industry, which compares the
density of oil to that of water through a
calculation designed to ensure consistency in

• As the “weight” of an oil is the largest

determinant of its market value, API gravity is
exceptionally important.
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Light/Heavy Crude Oils
• Crudes can be classified as “light” or “heavy,” a characteristic which refers to the oil’s
relative density based on the American Petroleum Institute (API) Gravity. This
measurement reflects how light or heavy a crude oil is compared to water.
• If an oil’s API Gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter than water and will float on it.
• Crude oils with lower densities and viscosities, and thus higher API gravities, usually
contain higher levels of naphtha with predominately volatile paraffinic hydrocarbons,
which can be processed readily to produce gasoline and are considered “light” crude.
• Lighter crudes are easier and less expensive to produce. They generally have a higher
percentage of light hydrocarbons that can be recovered with simple distillation at a

• If an oil’s API Gravity is less than 10, it is heavier than water and will sink.
• Heavy crude oils are more viscous, have higher boiling ranges and higher densities,
and thus have lower API gravities.
• Heavy crudes can’t be produced, transported, and refined by conventional methods
because they have high concentrations of sulphur and several metals, particularly
nickel and vanadium.
• Heavy crude oils are usually rich in aromatics and has high bitumen content.
• Heavy crudes require extra refining to produce more valuable and in-demand

• The currently accepted API gravity values that differentiate between light and heavy
crude oils are >33°API for “light” and <28°API for “heavy".
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Sweet/Sour Crude Oils

• A crude oil may also be described as sweet or

sour depending on its sulphur content. Crude
sulphur content is measured as a percentage.
• As a general rule,
– crude oils with less than 1% sulphur are
“sweet” and
– crude oils with over 1% are “sour.
• High sulphur crudes require additional
processing to meet regulatory specifications

Spiked crude oil: is "A crude oil blended with a

liquefied gas or condensate.“

Volatile petroleum
Petroleum with a FLASHPOINT < 60°c

Non-Volatile petroleum
Petroleum with a FLASHPOINT ˃ 60°c

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Reid vapour pressure (RVP)
• is a common measure of the volatility of gasoline. It is defined as the absolute
vapour pressure exerted by a liquid at 100 °F (37.8 °C) as determined by the test

The Reid vapour pressure is applicable only for gasoline, volatile crude oil, and
other volatile non-viscous petroleum products. It is not applicable for liquefied
petroleum gases.

True Vapour Pressure (TVP)

• is the pressure of the vapour in equilibrium with the liquid at 100 F (37.8 °C).

Differences between TVP and RVP

The true vapour pressure (TVP) at 100 °F differs slightly from the Reid vapour
pressure (RVP), as it excludes dissolved fixed gases such as air.

The RVP is the absolute vapour pressure and the TVP is the partial vapour pressure.

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Pour point
• The lowest temperature at which a petroleum oil
will remain fluid.

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• Viscosity is a fundamental
characteristic property of all
• Viscosity is a measure of how thick
(viscous) and sticky a liquid is.
Viscosity reduces the ability of a
liquid to flow. Any liquid that can
flow readily (such as water) will
have a low viscosity. Liquids with a
high viscosity (such as molasses
and Engine oil) will flow more
slowly and with greater difficulty.
• When a liquid flows, it has an
internal resistance to flow. When
the intermolecular forces of
attraction are strong within a
liquid, there is a larger viscosity. • Viscosity can be measured by
• Temperature also greatly affects timing how long it takes for the
viscosity: as temperature liquid to flow through a capillary
increases, viscosity decreases. This tube or how long it takes for a
is because higher levels of kinetic steel ball to fall through the
energy are more able to overcome liquid.
the intermolecular attractive
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Refined Petroleum products
• The vast majority of the crude oil that goes through the refineries leaves it as gasoline. But the range of
products produced is much wider than automotive fuels. In fact, these products touch almost every aspect of
modern life. Here are a few of our refined products:
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
• Together propane and butane are known as LPG, which is stored in metal containers under pressure as a liquid.
It is used for heating and cooking, especially when portability is needed – in camping stoves, for example, or on
Gasoline (motor fuel)
• a lightweight material that flows easily, spreads quickly, and may evaporate completely in a few hours under
temperate conditions. It poses a risk of fire and explosion because of its high volatility and flammability, and is
more toxic than crude oil.

Kerosene (paraffin)
• Kerosene was the first major product to be refined from crude oil in the late 19th century. At that time it was
mainly used for lighting in oil lamps. Today its main use is as jet aircraft fuel.
Lubricating oils
• Without lubricants, everything in the world would grind to a halt. Lubricants have thousands of uses, from
fixing squeaky doors to oiling industrial machines and automotive engines.
Heavy fuel oils
• These are used in large industrial boilers, in power stations for example, ship’s Engines and to raise steam to
drive turbines on ships.
• This is the heaviest product from the refinery. Essentially it’s what is left after everything else has been
removed from the crude oil. When heated, it can be used in road construction and as a waterproofing material
for roofs.
• Wax is a by-product of the refining process. It is used to make candles, electrical insulation and waterproof
coverings for food cartons.

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Vapour Density: Vapour density is expressed relative to the density of air under given
physical conditions. It is used in the calculation of cargo in the vapour phase and will
be a governing factor in the dispersal or accumulation of accidental releases of vapour.
• The densities of the gas mixtures evolved from the normal petroleum liquids, when
undiluted with air, are all greater than the density of air. Layering effects are
therefore encountered in cargo handling operations and can give rise to hazardous
• The following table gives gas densities relative to air for the three pure hydrocarbon
gases, propane, butane and pentane, which represent roughly the gas mixtures
that are produced respectively by crude oils, by motor or aviation
Density relative to air gasolines and by
Gas Pure Lower flammable limit
natural gasolines. hydrocarbon
50% by volume hydrocarbon/ mixture
50% by volume air
Propane (produced by crude oils) 1.55 1.25 1.0
Butane (produced by motor or aviation 1.5
gasoline) 2.0 1.0
Pentane (produced by natural gasolines) 2.5 1.8 1.0
• It will be seen that the density of the undiluted gas from a product such as
motor gasoline is likely to be about twice that of air, and that from a typical
crude oil about 1.5 times.
• As it is diluted with air, the density of the gas/air mixture from all three types
of cargo approaches that of air and, at the lower flammable limit, is
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indistinguishable from it.
• The solubility of a gas in a liquid
depends on temperature, the partial
pressure of the gas over the liquid,
the nature of the solvent and the
nature of the gas.
• The most common solvent is water.
• Gas solubility is always limited by
the equilibrium between the gas and
a saturated solution of the gas.
• The concentration of dissolved gas
depends on the partial pressure of
the gas.
• The partial pressure controls the
number of gas molecule collisions • The dissolving process for gases is an
with the surface of the solution. equilibrium.
• If the partial pressure is doubled the • The solubility of a gas depends directly
number of collisions with the surface on the gas partial pressure.
will double. The increased number • At equilibrium the number of
of collisions produce more dissolved molecules leaving the gas phase to
gas. enter the solution equals the number
of gas molecules leaving the solution.
• The illustration shows that if the • Gas solubility is proportional to the gas
pressure is doubled then the partial pressure.
concentration of dissolved gas will • If the temperature stays constant
double. increasing the pressure will increase
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the amount of dissolved gas.
Fuel Oxygen

Ignition Source
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• Many cargoes carried on tankers are
flammable. They may ignite or they may
release gases which may form a
flammable mixture.
• The main risk involved in crude oil and
petroleum products is their
flammability. Risks are also caused by
the density and toxicity of volatile gases.
• When petroleum is ignited, it is the gas
that is progressively given off by the
liquid which burns as a visible flame.
• The quantity of gas available to be given
off by a petroleum liquid depends on its
volatility which is frequently expressed
for purposes of comparison in terms of
Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP).
• A more informative measure of volatility
is the True Vapour Pressure (TVP) but
unfortunately this is not easily

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• Petroleum gases can be ignited and will burn
only when mixed with air in certain
proportions. If there is too little or too much
petroleum gas, the mixture cannot burn.
• The limiting proportions, expressed as a
percentage by volume of petroleum gas in
air, are known as the Lower and Upper
Flammable Limits.
• These limits vary according to the different
possible components of petroleum gases.
• For gas mixtures from petroleum liquids
likely to be encountered in normal tanker
trades, the overall range is from a minimum
Lower Flammable Limit of about 1% gas by
volume in air to a maximum Upper
Flammable Limit of about 10% gas by
volume in air.
• As a petroleum liquid is heated, the
concentration of gas in air above it increases.
The temperature of the liquid at which this
concentration reaches the Lower Flammable
Limit is knownOil as the Flashpoint.
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• Evaporation
– Liquid turns to vapour
• Flammable vapours
– Petroleum gives off flammable vapours (hydrocarbon gas)
• Flammable mixtures
– Flammable gas mixed with oxygen
• Temperature
– The rate of evaporation is related to temperature
• Flashpoint
– The lowest temperature at which enough flammable
vapours form to create a flammable mixture with air
• Volatile petroleum
– Petroleum with a FLASHPOINT < 600c

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• Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit
– below this limit there is insufficient hydrocarbon gas in
the mixture to support and propagate combustion
– the mixture is said to be too lean.

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• Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit
– the limit above which there is insufficient oxygen in the
mixture to support and propagate combustion
– the mixture is said to be too rich.

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• Flammable Range
– The relatively narrow range of mixtures between the
upper & lower limits




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Flammable Range Diagram

11.4% O2

% by Volume Insufficient O2 to
support combustion



5 10 15 20

Oxygen - % by Volume
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• FLAMMABILITY : Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn. Vapour given
off by a flammable material can burn when mixed with air in the right proportion,
in the presence of an ignition source.
• IGNITION POINT: Is the lowest temperature to which a flammable substance must
be heated for it to ignite
• FLASH POINT: Is the lowest temperature at which the vapour of a substance are
available in sufficient quantity to produce a momentary flash when a flame is
• FIRE POINT: Is the lowest temperature at which the heat from the combustion of a
burning vapour is capable of producing sufficient vapour to enable combustion to
• SPONTANEOUS INGNITION TEMPERATURE: Is the lowest temperature at which the
substance will ignite spontaneously that is the substance will burn without the
introduction of a flame or other ignition source.
• LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL): Is that concentration of flammable vapour in air
below which there is insufficient flammable vapour to support and propagate
• UPPER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (UFL): Is the concentration of flammable vapour in air
above which there is insufficient air to support and propagate combustion.
• AUTO IGNITION: Is the ignition of a flammable material without the assistance of a
external pilot source.
• FLAMMABLE RANGE: Is the range of concentrations of a flammable vapour in air
within which the vapour and air mixture is flammable.
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• Direct Heat • Electrical energy
– Smoking
– Welding – Electrical sparks
– Burning – Electrical arcing
– Lightening
• Mechanical sparks
– Chipping – Static discharge
– Dropped tools
– Collision
– Chemical energy
– Spontaneous combustion
– Metallic smears
– Auto-ignition
– Pyrophoric Iron Sulphide

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• Intrinsic safety is a design technique applied to electrical
equipment and wiring for hazardous locations. The
technique is based on limiting energy, electrical and
thermal, to a level below that required to ignite a specific
hazardous atmospheric mixture.

• Intrinsically safe equipment is defined as "equipment and

wiring which is incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or
thermal energy under normal or abnormal conditions to
cause ignition of a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture
in its most easily ignited concentration." This is achieved by
limiting the amount of power available to the electrical
equipment in the hazardous area to a level below that
which will ignite the gases.
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Flammable Limits
1. A mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air cannot ignite, unless its composition lies
within a range of gas-in-air concentrations known as the flammable range.

2. The lower limit of the range, known as the “lower flammable limit”, is any
hydrocarbon concentration below which there is insufficient hydrocarbon gas to
support combustion.

3. The upper limit of the range, known as the “upper flammable limit”, is any
hydrocarbon concentration above which air is insufficient to support combustion.

4. The flammable limits vary somewhat for different pure hydrocarbon gases and for
the gas mixtures derived from different petroleum liquids.
(The lower and upper flammable limits of oil cargoes carried in tankers can be
taken, for general purposes, to be 1 % and 10 % hydrocarbon by volume,
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• Toxicity is the degree to which a substance or
mixture of substances can harm humans or
• Toxic substances can have local effects, such as
skin or eye irritation, but can also affect other,
more distant, parts of the body (systemic
• Toxic substances can affect humans in 4 main
ways:: -
– by being swallowed (ingestion);
– through skin contact;
– through the lungs (inhalation) and
– through the eyes.
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• Hydrocarbon gas produces narcosis
–Comparatively small quantities of petroleum gas, when inhaled, can
cause symptoms of diminished responsibility and dizziness similar to
drunkenness, with headache and irritation of the eyes. The inhalation
of a sufficient quantity can be fatal
–These symptoms can occur at concentrations well below the Lower
Flammable Limit. However, petroleum gases vary in their
physiological effects and human tolerance to these effects also varies
widely. It should not be assumed that because conditions can be
tolerated the gas concentration is within safe limits
–The smell of petroleum gas mixtures is very variable and in some
cases the gases may dull the sense of smell. The impairment of smell
is especially likely, and particularly serious, if the mixture contains
hydrogen sulphide
–The absence of smell should never be taken to indicate the absence
of gas Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 29

• Hydrocarbon gas produces narcosis

–Eye irritation Low
–Diminished responsibilities
–Death High

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ABSORPTION (Skin Contact)
• Many petroleum products, especially the more
volatile ones, cause skin irritation and
• remove essential oils from the skin, leading to
• They are also irritating to the eyes
• Certain heavier oils can cause serious skin
disorders with prolonged & repeated contact
• Carcinogenic
• Direct contact with petroleum should always
be avoided by wearing the appropriate
protective equipment, especially impermeable
gloves and goggles
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• Low risk of ingestion in operational practice
• Low oral toxicity
• Acute discomfort & nausea if swallowed
• Possible serious consequences if oil enters lungs during

• Petroleum has low oral toxicity, but when swallowed it

causes acute discomfort and nausea. There is then a
possibility that liquid petroleum may be drawn into the
lungs during vomiting and this can have serious
consequences, especially with higher volatility products,
such as gasolines andOilkerosenes.
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• The maximum concentration of cargo vapours
in air to which personnel may be exposed
without adverse effect

• The toxicity of a substance is measured in

parts per million (ppm) of volume of gas in air
• The exposure time is also a factor

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Time Weighted Average

• The maximum concentration of vapour in

air to which personnel may be exposed for
a normal 8 hour working day or 40 hour
working week without adverse effect
• A reference to TLV may be taken to mean

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Short Term Exposure Limit
• The maximum concentration of vapour in
air to which personnel can be exposed for a
period of 15 minutes without adverse effect
• Maximum 4 such periods per day
• Minimum 1 hour between each period

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• The concentration of vapour in air that must
not be exceeded
• Applied to fast acting substance
• Ammonia
• Chlorine

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• Benzene
• Toluene
• Xylene
• The presence of these substances greatly
increases TOXICITY
– TLV of Benzene 5 ppm
• Effects may include blood & bone marrow

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• Present in unstabilised crude
• Also in some products
• Naphtha
• Gas oil
• ‘Rotten egg’ smell
• TLV - 10 ppm

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• Detectable by smell only in

concentrations < 1ppm

• First effect is loss of sense

of smell

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Effects of H2S at concentrations above TLV

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Effects of H2S at concentrations
above TLV
• 50-100 ppm
– Eye & respiratory tract irritation after 1 hour
• 200 - 300 ppm
– As above but more severe after 1 hour
• 500 - 700 ppm
– Dizziness, headache and nausea after 15 minutes
– Loss of consciousness and possible death after 30 - 60 minutes
• 700 - 900 ppm
– Rapid unconsciousness, death within a few minutes
• 1,000 - 2,000 ppm
– Instantaneous collapse and cessation of breathing
– Death

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• Main hazard is low O2 content
• Gas freeing operations sufficient to dilute
toxic constituents to below TLVs
• Toxic constituents of IG
– Nitric oxide
– Nitrogen dioxide
– Sulphur dioxide
– Carbon monoxide

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• Causes of low O2 levels in enclosed spaces
– Presence of inert gas
– Rusting
– Hardening of coatings & paint

• Normal O2 content 21% by volume

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• 21% - 16%
– Breathing becomes deeper & faster
• 16% - 10%
– Impairment to breathing very apparent
– Unconsciousness in most individuals
• 10% - 5%
– Unconsciousness inevitable, perhaps rapid
– Death will follow if victim not removed
• < 5%
– Immediate unconsciousness
– Irreversible brain damage within minutes
– Death
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• Symptoms indicating that an atmosphere is

deficient in oxygen may give inadequate
notice of danger
• Most persons would fail to recognise the
danger until they were too weak to be able
to escape without help
• This is especially so when escape involves
the exertion of climbing

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 45

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Definitions (MARPOL)
• Crude oil tanker means an oil tanker engaged in the trade of
carrying crude oil.
• Product carrier means an oil tanker engaged in the trade of
carrying oil other than crude oil.
• Combination carrier means a ship designed to carry either oil or
solid cargoes in bulk.
• Tank means an enclosed space which is formed by the
permanent structure of a ship and which is designed for the
carriage of liquid in bulk.
• Wing tank means any tank adjacent to the side shell plating.
• Centre tank means any tank inboard of a longitudinal bulkhead.
• Slop tank means a tank specifically designated for the collection
of tank drainings, tank washings and other oily mixtures.
• Segregated ballast means the ballast water introduced into a
tank which is completely separated from the cargo oil and oil
fuel system and which is permanently allocated to the carriage
of ballast or to the carriage of ballast or cargoes other than oil
or noxious liquid substances as variously defined in the Annexes
of the present Convention.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 47
• In March 1989 the tanker
Exxon Valdez, which complied
fully with the then current
MARPOL requirements, ran
aground and discharged 11
million gallons of crude oil into
the pristine waters of Prince
William Sound in Alaska.
• The subsequent public outcry
led to the United States
Congress passing the Oil
Pollution Act 1990 (OPA 90).
• This unilateral action by the
United States Government
made it a requirement that
existing single hull oil tankers
operating in United States
waters were to be phased out
by an early date, after which
all oil tankers were to have a
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan
double hull. 48
• In 1992 MARPOL was amended to make it mandatory for tankers of
5,000 dwt and more ordered after 6 July 1993 to be fitted with
double hulls, or an alternative design approved by IMO.
• Although the double hull requirement was adopted in 1992,
following the Erika incident off the coast of France in December
1999, IMO Member States discussed proposals for accelerating the
phase-out of single hull tankers.
• As a result, in April 2001, IMO adopted a revised phase-out
schedule for single hull tankers, which entered into force on 1
September 2003 (the 2001 amendments to MARPOL). The revised
requirements set out a stricter timetable for the phasing-out of
single-hull tankers.
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 49
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 50
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 51
-Tanks, Pump rooms, Slop tanks, Cofferdams, Deep tanks

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 52
• Oil tankers generally have from 8 to 12 tanks.
Each tank is split into two or three
independent compartments by fore-and-aft
• The tanks are numbered with tank 1 being the
• Individual compartments are referred to by the
tank number and the athwartships position,
such as “one port”, “three starboard”, or “six
• pump rooms usually situated aft so that power
can be easily linked direct from the engine
• A major component of tanker architecture is
the design of the hull or outer structure.
• A tanker with a single outer shell between the
product and the ocean is said to be single-
• Most newer tankers are double-hulled, with an
extra space between the hull and the storage
tanks. Hybrid designs such as double-bottom
and double-sided combine aspects of single
and double-hull designs.
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 53
• IMO distinguishes three categories of single-hulled tankers that will be
phased out by 2016, in accordance with amendments to Annex I of the
MARPOL Convention.

• “Category 1 oil tanker” is defined as

– an oil tanker of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above carrying crude oil, fuel
oil, heavy diesel oil or lubricating oil as cargo, and
– of 30,000 tonnes deadweight and above carrying oil other than the above,
– which does not comply with the requirements for protectively located
segregated ballast tanks (commonly known as Pre-MARPOL tankers);

• “Category 2 oil tanker” is defined as

– an oil tanker of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above carrying crude oil, fuel
oil, heavy diesel oil or lubricating oil as cargo, and
– of 30,000 tonnes deadweight and above carrying oil other than the above,
– which complies with the requirements for protectively located segregated
ballast tank requirement (MARPOL tankers);

• “Category 3 oil tanker” is defined to mean

– an oil tanker of 5,000 tonnes deadweight and above but less than the tonnage
specified for Category 1 and 2 tankers;
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 54
Double hull and double bottom requirements for oil tankers delivered on or after 6
July 1996
1. Applicable to oil tankers of 600 tonnes deadweight and above delivered on or
after 6 July 1996, as follows:
2. Every oil tanker of 5000 tonnes deadweight and above shall:
3. The entire cargo tank length shall be protected by ballast tanks or spaces other
than tanks that carry oil as follows:
i. Wing tanks or spaces
– Wing tanks or spaces shall extend either for the full depth of the ship's side or from
the top of the double bottom to the uppermost deck. They shall be arranged such that
the cargo tanks are located inboard of the moulded line of the side shell plating
nowhere less than the distance w, which, as shown in figure 1, is measured at any cross-
section at right angles to the side shell, as specified below:
– w = 0.5 + DW/20,000 (m) or 2.0 m, whichever is the lesser.
– The minimum value of w = 1.0 m.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 55
– ii. Double bottom tanks or spaces
– At any cross-section, the depth of each double bottom tank or space shall be
such that the distance h between the bottom of the cargo tanks and the
moulded line of the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the
bottom shell plating as shown in figure 1 is not less than specified below:
– h = B/15 (m) or 2.0 m, whichever is the lesser.
– The minimum value of h = 1.0 m.

– iii. Turn of the bilge area or at locations without a clearly defined turn of the
– When the distances h and w are different, the distance w shall have preference
at levels exceeding 1.5h above the baseline as shown in figure 1.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 56
– iv. The aggregate capacity of ballast tanks
– On crude oil tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above and
product carriers of 30,000 tonnes deadweight and above, the aggregate
capacity of wing tanks, double bottom tanks, forepeak tanks and after
peak tanks shall not be less than the capacity of segregated ballast
– Wing tanks or spaces and double bottom tanks shall be located as
uniformly as practicable along the cargo tank length.
– Additional segregated ballast capacity provided for reducing longitudinal
hull girder bending stress, trim, etc. may be located anywhere within the
– v. Suction wells in cargo tanks
– Suction wells in cargo tanks may protrude into the double bottom below
the boundary line defined by the distance h provided that such wells are
as small as practicable and the distance between the well bottom and
bottom shell plating is not less than 0.5h.
– vi. Ballast and cargo piping
– Ballast piping and other piping such as sounding and vent piping to
ballast tanks shall not pass through cargo tanks. Cargo piping and similar
piping to cargo tanks shall not pass through ballast tanks. Exemptions to
this requirement may be granted for short lengths of piping, provided
that they are completely welded or equivalent.
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 57
4. Every oil tanker of less than 5,000 tonnes deadweight shall comply with paragraphs
iii and iv of this regulation, or shall:

– .1 at least be fitted with double bottom tanks or spaces having such a depth that the
distance h complies with the following:
– h = B/15 (m)
– with a minimum value of h = 0.76 m;
– in the turn of the bilge area and at locations without a clearly defined turn of the
bilge, the cargo tank boundary line shall run parallel to the line of the midship flat
bottom as shown in figure 3; and

– .2 be provided with cargo tanks so arranged that the capacity of each cargo tank does
not exceed 700 m3 unless wing tanks or spaces are arranged in accordance with
paragraph, .1 complying with the following:
– w = 0.4 + (2.4xDW)/20,000 (m)
– with a minimum value of w = 0.76 m.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 58
• Oil shall not be carried in any space extending forward of a collision bulkhead.
• An oil tanker that is not required to have a collision bulkhead shall not carry oil in
any space extending forward of the transverse plane perpendicular to the
centreline that is located as if it were a collision bulkhead located in accordance
with that regulation.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 59
• Bulkhead spacing throughout the cargo tank space is
determined by the permissible length of cargo tanks.

• MARPOL requires that the length of each cargo tank

shall not exceed greater than 10 meters or a length
expressed as a percentage of the ship’s length that is
dependent on the number of longitudinal bulkheads
fitted and the minimum distance from the ship’s side of
the outer longitudinal bulkhead.

• Tankers with two or more longitudinal bulkheads may

have wing and centre tank lengths up to 20% of the
ship’s length.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 60
Limitation of Size and Arrangement of Cargo Tanks
• The length of each cargo tank shall not exceed 10 m or one
where: of the following values for l, whichever is the greater:
• "bi" means the 1. where no longitudinal bulkhead is provided inside the
minimum cargo tanks,
distance from – l = [(0.5 x b1/B) +0.1] L ; but l is not to exceed 0.2L; or
the vessel’s
side to the 2. where a centreline longitudinal bulkhead is provided inside
outer the cargo tanks,
longitudinal l = [(0.25 x b1/B) +0.15] L; or
bulkhead of
the tank in 3. where two or more longitudinal bulkheads are provided
question at the inside the cargo tanks,
level a. for wing cargo tanks, l = 0.2L, and
corresponding b. for centre cargo tanks,
to the assigned
i. If b1/B is equal to or greater than one fifth, then l = 0.2L, or
freeboard: ii. If b1/B is less than one fifth, then, where no centreline
longitudinal bulkhead is provided, [(0.5 x b1/B) +0.1] L , or
• "B" means
"breadth" : and where a centreline longitudinal bulkhead is provided inside
the cargo tanks
• “L," means
"length". • l = [(0.25 x b1/B) +0.15] L
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 61
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 62
Slop tanks
• Oil tankers of 150 gross tonnage and above shall be
provided with slop tank arrangements in accordance with
the requirements of paragraphs 2.1 to 2.3 of this regulation.
• In oil tankers delivered on or before 31 December 1979, any
cargo tank may be as a slop tank.

– 2.1 Adequate means shall be provided for cleaning the cargo

tanks and transferring the dirty ballast residue and tank
washings from the cargo tanks into a slop tank approved by
the Administration.

– 2.2 In this system arrangements shall be provided to transfer

the oily waste into a slop tank or combination of slop tanks in
such a way that any effluent discharged into the sea will be
such as to comply with the regulations.

– 2.3 The arrangements of the slop tank or combination of slop

tanks shall have a capacity necessary to retain the slop
generated by tank washings, oil residues and dirty ballast
residues. The total capacity of the slop tank or tanks shall not
be less than 3% of the oil-carrying capacity of the ship.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 63
• A pumproom houses all the pumps connected to a tanker’s cargo lines. Some larger
tankers have two pumprooms. A pumproom generally spans the total breadth of
the ship.
Pump-room bottom protection
• 1 This regulation applies to oil tankers of 5,000 tonnes deadweight and above
constructed on or after 1 January 2007.
• 2 The pump-room shall be provided with a double bottom such that at any cross-
section the depth of each double bottom tank or space shall be such that the
distance h between the bottom of the pump-room and the ship's baseline
measured at right angles to the ship's baseline is not less than specified below:

– h = B/15 (m) or
– h = 2 m, whichever is the lesser.
– The minimum value of h = 1 m.

• 3 In case of pump-rooms whose bottom plate is located above the baseline by at

least the minimum height required in paragraph 2 above (e.g. gondola stern
designs), there will be no need for a double bottom construction in way of the
• 4 Ballast pumps shall be provided with suitable arrangements to ensure efficient
suction from double bottom tanks.
• 5 Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 above, where the flooding
of the pump-room would not render the ballast or cargo pumping system
inoperative, a double bottom need not be fitted.
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 64
• Is a tank rising on the floor of the double bottom of a vessel. Ballast
in deep tanks are provided to improve the equilibrium of a ship
when it is proceeding on ballast passage. Fuel deep tanks are used
to store liquid fuel required by vessels. In some dry cargo vessels, a
deep tank is installed for liquid cargo (such as vegetable oil or latex).

• The deep tank is bounded by water-tight bulkheads and is provided

with hatches and covers in case the vessel wants to load dry cargo.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 65
• A cofferdam is a small space left
open between two bulkheads, to
give protection from heat, fire, or

• Tankers generally have

cofferdams forward and aft of
the cargo tanks, and sometimes
between individual tanks to avoid
inter-mixing of cargo.

• The cofferdam avoids intermixing

of two different liquid when
there is a leak from the boundary
separating the two liquid.

• It is also provided with sounding

pipe to check leakage from any of
the subordinate tanks
• It is always maintained dry to
detect an early leak.
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 66
• In December 2003, further revisions to the requirements
were made, accelerating further the phase-out schedule.
These amendments entered into force on 5 April 2005.

Carriage of heavy grade oil

• Regulation 21 of MARPOL Annex I on the prevention of oil
pollution from oil tankers when carrying heavy grade oil
(HGO) bans the carriage of HGO in single-hull tankers of
5,000 tons deadweight (DWT) and above after the date of
entry into force of the regulation (5 April 2005), and in
single-hull oil tankers of 600tons DWT and above but less
than 5,000 tons DWT, not later than the anniversary of
their delivery date in 2008.

Under regulation 21, HGO means any of the following:

• crude oils having a density at 15ºC higher than 900 kg/m3;

• oils, other than crude oils, having either a density at 15ºC

higher than 900 kg/ m3 or a kinematic viscosity at 50ºC
higher than 180 mm2/s; and bitumen, tar and their
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 67

-Direct system, Ring main system, Free flow system.

Stripping, cargo heating and Cargo pumps

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 68
Tanker pipelines
• There are three basic
types of pipeline systems:
1. Direct system
2. Ring main system
3. Free flow system.

• Each system has their

uses and is designed to
fulfil a need in a particular
type of vessel.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 69
1. The direct system
• Used mainly on crude and black oil tankers where separation of oil grades is not so
important. This is the simplest type of pipeline system which uses fewer valves
than the others.
• It takes oil directly from the tank to the pump and so reduces friction. This has an
affect of increasing the rate of discharge, at the same time improving the tank
• It is cheaper to install and maintain than the ring main system because there is less
pipeline length and with fewer valves less likelihood of malfunction.
• However, the layout is
not as versatile as a
ring main system and
problems in the event
of faulty valves or
leaking pipelines
could prove more
difficult to
• Also, the washing is
more difficult since
there is no circular
system and the
washings must be
flushed into the
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 70
The advantages are that:
1. it is easy to operate and less training of personnel is required
2. as there are fewer valves it takes less time to set up the valve system before
commencing a cargo operation
3. contamination is unlikely, as it is easy to isolate each section.

The disadvantages are that:

1. it is a very inflexible system which makes it difficult to plan for a multi-port
2. block stowage has to be used which makes it difficult to control 'trim'
3. carrying more than three parcels concurrently can be difficult.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 71
2. The ring main system
• This is basically a ring from the pump room around the ship, with crossover lines at each set
of tanks. There are various designs usually involving more than one ring.
• It is extensively employed on 'product tankers' where the system allows many grades of
cargo to be carried without contamination.
• This is a highly versatile system which permits several different combinations of pump and
line for any particular tank
The advantages of the system are that:
1. cargoes can be more easily split into
smaller units and placed in various
parts of the ship
2. line washing is more complete
3. a greater number of different
parcels of cargo can be carried
4. trim and stress can be more easily
The disadvantages are that:
1. because of the more complicated
pipeline and valve layout, better
training in cargo separation is required
2. contamination is far more likely if
valves are incorrectly set
3. fairly low pumping rates are
4. costs of installation and
maintenance are higher because of
more pipeline and an increased Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 72
number of valves.
3. The free flow system
• The 'free flow system' employs sluice valves in the tank bulkheads rather than pipelines.
• With a stern trim this system can discharge all the cargo from the aftermost tank via direct
lines to the pump room. The result is that a very high speed of discharge can be achieved
and as such is suitable for large crude carriers with a single grade cargo.
• Tank drainage is also very efficient since the bulkhead valves allow the oil to flow aft easily.
• There are fewer tanks
with this system and it
has increased numbers
of sluice valves the
farther aft you go. The
increased number of
sluices is a feature to
handle the increased
volume being allowed to
pass from one tank to

• The main advantage is

that a very high rate of
discharge is possible
with few pipelines and
limited losses to friction.
• The main disadvantage
is that overflows are
possible if the cargo
levels in all tanks are not
carefully monitored Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 73
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 74
• The strategy employed in completing the discharge of cargo will determine, to a
large degree, the impression the charterer and the facility will have of the ship's
performance. A carefully planned and competently completed tank stripping
(draining), operation will ensure a minimum discharge time and maximum cargo
outturn. A full knowledge of the characteristics of the cargo and the capabilities of
the ship's pumping systems are essential to achieve maximum outturn with
minimum time in berth.

Types of stripping systems

• A tanker may have a stripping system made up of independent suction piping, or it
may have alternative stripping suction outlets from the main cargo lines.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 75
Independent stripping lines:
• The first alternative is the
most versatile and permits
the earliest stripping of tanks
after they have been emptied
as far as possible by the main
cargo pumps.

• Stripping suction valves in
tanks should be 'globe/check'
valves, a special type of valve
which acts as a non-return
valve when opened only a few
turns, but permits full flow
when fully opened.

• These valves are opened fully

when stripping begins, then
closed to the check position
as the tank becomes nearly

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 76
Suction piping with main and
stripping lines combined.
• One pipeline system has both
main (large diameter) and
stripping (small diameter)

• To use a stripping system off the

main cargo lines, the main
pumps must be either finished
their work or stopped. This will
tend to delay the discharge.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 77
• Some stripping systems are fitted with 'last litre' suctions, small diameter suction
lines connected between the stripping suction valves and a stripping suction block
• When the tank appears to be empty, the stripping suction valve is closed, leaving
the block valve open. The pump then draws through the 'last litre' line suction
located in the very corner of the tank a few millimetres above the tank bottom.

• 'Last-litre' stripping line used for maximum recovery on product tankers. When the
suction valve is closed, with the block valve open, the stripping pump suction acts
on the small-diameter line, achieving maximum cargo recovery.
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 78
• Either type of stripping system will normally have two stripping pumps in
the pumproom, arranged so that they can be used simultaneously and
separately on different groups of tanks.

• The stripping discharge piping will include lines to the midship manifold, to
the slop tank(s) and possibly to an aft cargo tank which can be used for a
stripping accumulation tank.
• There may also be a stripping overboard discharge line. The overboard
valve(s) must be verified to be fully closed and sealed before the stripping
pumps are started.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 79
Cargo heating
• Cargo heating may be required in
order to maintain the cargo in a fluid
and pumpable condition and/or to
reduce waxy residues remaining on
board after discharge.
• Heating coils are installed in all cargo
and slop tanks, The heating system is
capable of raising the temperature in
the cargo oil tanks from 44° C to 66°C
in 96 hours during voyage with
ambient air temperature of 2°C and
sea temperature of 5°C and of raising
the oily water(50/50) temperature in
the slop tank from 44°C to 66°C in 24
hours at the same conditions as
• If cargo is not heated, drain and blow
through all cargo heating inlet lines,
coils and return lines with air to
remove all water.

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 80
Cargo heating
• Heating arrangements in
tanks consist of a system of
coils spread over at the
bottom about 20 cms from
the bottom plating.
• When heating cargo steam
is turned on to individual
tanks, the coils at the
bottom become hot
heating the oil in the
immediate vicinity.
• The warm oil rises slowly
up and is replaced by cold
oil from top and circulation
• Ships carrying crude have
cast iron or alloy coils
because the heating
surfaces are subjected to
excessive corrosion from
lighter fractions in the
crude and ordinary steel
pipes cannot withstand. Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 81

Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 82
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 83
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 84
• Pipelines are, lengths of steel pipes
which connect groups of cargo tanks
to one another and by which those
tanks are loaded and discharged.
• Design and fitting of cargo pipelines
must allow for thermal expansion
and contraction. Short lengths are
bolted together by flanges or
expansion joints. The latter consists
of oil tight metal collar which
surrounds the ends of two lengths.
As ends do not touch, any expansion
or contraction will not damage the
• Lines pass directly through bulkhead
once again secured by oil tight
flanges. Any sharp turns are
constructed by bolting short curved
lengths of pipes known as bends.
Ends of pipe are tank suctions
(bellmouths). The tank main
pipelines connect the cargo pumps
with the deck pipelines.
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 85
• The Suction Bell Mouth is designed to
maintain effective suction during the
final tank emptying or “stripping” of
liquid cargos in todays’ modem vessels.
• The suction bellmouth comes as close
to the bottom of the tank as possible
and still provides an open area equal to
150% of the pipe area.
• Because of the smooth contour and
correctly proportioned cross-sectional
areas, it allows the liquid to proceed
gradually from the tank. This action
minimizes the possibility of gas
Oil Cargoes-Capt.S.Nathan 86