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- science and art of investigating &

comparing the police system of nations
- process of outlining the similarities
and differences of one police system to
another in order to discover insights in the
field of international policing
- covers the study of police
organizations, trainings & methods of
policing of various nations
 Comparative Criminal Justice
- compares justice systems worldwide
- similarities and differences in
structures, goals, punishment and
emphasis on rights as well
 International Criminal Justice
- study and description of one country’s
law, criminal procedure, or justice
Basic reasons are:
 To benefit from the experience of others
 To broaden our understanding of the
different cultures and approaches to
 To help us deal with the many
transnational crime problems that plague
our world today
Four Kinds of Societies in the World
1. Folk-Communal Society
– also called primitive societies
- little codification of law, no specialization
among police
- early Roman, African, Middle Eastern
2. Urban-Commercial Societies
- rely on trade as the essence of their
market system
- has civil law, specialized police forces,
punishment is inconsistent, sometimes harsh
sometimes lenient
- Continental Europe
3. Urban –industrial Societies
- produce most of the goods and services
they need without government interference
- codified laws, police specialized in how to
handle property crimes
- England & US
4. Bureaucratic Societies
- modern post industrial societies or the
- has a system of law, police who tend to
keep busy handling political crime & terrorism
1. Adversarial – where the accused is innocent
until proven guilty
2. Inquisitorial – where the accused is guilty until
proven innocent
7 Theories of Comparative Policing
1. Alertness to Crime Theory - as a nation develops,
people’s alertness to crime is heightened.
2. Economic or Migration Theory – crime everywhere
is the result of unrestrained migration and
overpopulation in urban areas such as ghettos and
3. Opportunity Theory – long with a higher standards
of living, victims become more careless of their
belongings and opportunities for committing crime
4. Demographic Theory – based on the event of
when a greater number of children are being born,
because as these baby booms grow up,
delinquent subcultures develop out of the
adolescent identity crisis

5. Deprivation Theory – holds that progress

comes along with rising expectations, and people
at the bottom develop unrealistic expectations
while people at the top don’t see themselves
rising fast enough
6. Modernization Theory – global development is
a worldwide process affecting all societies
touched by technological change

7. Theory of Anomie & Synomie – suggested that

progressive lifestyle and norms result in the
disintegration of older norms that once held
people together
Centralized & Decentralized System of Law
Decentralized Law Enforcement
- refers to a system where police
administrations and operations are independent
from one state to another

Centralized Law Enforcement

- simply means one police force operating in
a country
What can the Philippine National Police adopt?
 As to organization, decentralization of regional
or city police office that can be financially
support its operation.
 As to responsibilities, the specific functions of
new PNP officers can be assigned to:
a. Gather data related to his jurisdiction (city police
officer) like list of people who are
- working late at night who might be of help as
witnesses to crime
- normally cooperative with the police
- not engage in formal employment
- own guns or swords
- with mental illness
- old living in the area alone who should be
visited periodically
- leaders of legitimate organizations
- leaders of illegitimate organizations
- total population
- list of households, rented homes &
b. Conduct of the following (for provincial or
municipal police officer) like
- Visit each house twice to be acquainted
and to determine their need related to law
- seminars among brgy leaders related to
peace and order

 As to the general entry qualification, height

must not be a requirement when the applicant
has an above average intelligent quotient
 As to participation of civilian, accreditation of
individuals who are not members of the PNP
but with specialization in the fields related to
law enforcement is encouraged.
 As to organization & supervision, the PNP may
be separated and be fully controlled and
supervised by the NAPOLCOM without
interference of local executives
- is a process of interaction and integration
among the people, companies, and governments of
different nations, a process driven by international
trade and investment and aided by information
- package of transnational flow of people,
production, investment, information, ideas and
- this process has effects on the environment,
on culture, on political systems, on economic
development and prosperity, and on human physical
well-being in societies around the world
Effects of Globalization
Industry: The world has become a huge market
where you can buy and sell things produced in any
part of the world. There are a lot of international
brands operating worldwide.

Culture: Globalization means a decrease in the

cultural diversity that used to exist in the world
earlier. You can find people in several countries
dressing up like other countries. Food is another
good example. Young people especially are eating
more of American or Chinese foods then their own
cultural dishes.
Legislation: There has been an increase in the
establishment of International courts of justice
where someone accused could be dealt with in
any part of the world. Interpol is another example
of International law enforcement agency.

Language: With increased globalization, people

tend to forget their mother tongue and use English
instead as there is an idea that it makes them
superior in some way. This might also help them in
job searches etc.
Information: With the wide use of Internet and
other kinds of information technology, it has
become much easier and faster to share
information worldwide. Live TV channels are
another good example of quick information

Finance: Globalization has made it easier to raise

finance through individuals and firms outside the
country. The International Monetary Fund is a
good example of an International Institute which
lends money to countries in need for finance.
Politics: Powerful countries and individuals nowadays
have political control over the whole world, not only
their country. The United States is an example of a
country that influences the whole of the world

These include:
 Increasing trends in migration of labor to
developing countries as large firms shift their
production to developing countries.
 Some powerful people and countries control the
whole world
 Loss of jobs in countries that cannot compete with
larger firms
 Increased dependency on each other.
Effects of Globalization to Law Enforcement in the
1. The facilitation of transnational crimes ad
criminals can be easily achieved.
2. There is a need for transnational policing. The
cooperation among police organization in the
world is vital.
3. Training instructions for incoming law
enforcement officers must include advance
computer to prepare them as cyber cops so
they can be better prepared to deal with cyber
4. Development of new strategies to deal with
international organized crimes is a must.
5. Provisions of law enforcement with updated
legislations related to modernization theory of
The Negative Effects Of Globalization
1. Globalization has led to exploitation of labor.
Prisoners and child workers are used to work in
inhumane conditions. Safety standards are
ignored to produce cheap goods.
2. Developed nations have white collar jobs. That
means less-jobs for their people.
3. Job insecurity. Earlier people had stable,
permanent jobs. Now people live in constant
dread of losing their jobs to competition.
Increased job competition has led to reduction
in wages and consequently lower standards of
4. Companies have set up industries causing pollution
in countries with poor regulation of pollution.
5. Fast food chains like McDonalds and KFC are
spreading in the developing world. People are
consuming more junk food from these joints which
has an adverse impact on their health.
6. The benefits of globalization are not universal. The
rich are getting richer and the poor are becoming
7. Bad aspects of foreign cultures are affecting the
local cultures through TV and the Internet.
8. Enemy nations can spread propaganda through the
9. Deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS are being spread
by travelers to the remotest corners of the globe.
10. Local industries are being taken over by foreign
11. The increase in prices has reduced the
government’s ability to sustain social welfare
schemes in developed countries.
Threats to Law Enforcement brought by
 International criminal networks have been quick to
take advantage of the opportunities
 Globalization allowed international criminals to
expand their networks and increase their
cooperation in illicit activities and financial
 Criminal groups have taken advantage of the high
volume of trade to smuggle drugs, arms, and other
contraband across national boundaries.
 Terrorists have access to sophisticated
weapons enhancing their ability to inflict
damage. Terrorists use the Internet for
communicating among themselves.
 There is increase in human trafficking.