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DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTS FOR

MEASURING ENVIRONMENTAL
PARAMETERS
WEATHER
• Weather is a phase of climate representing
atmospheric condition at a given place and at a
given time
• DIFFERENT WEATHER ELEMENTS ARE:
• Temperature
• Solar radiation
• Humidity
• Cloud
• Wind
• Precipitation
MEASUREMENT OF WEATHER
PARAMETERS
TEMPERATURE:
• It is a relative term implying a degree of
molecular activity / heat of a substance
• It is intensity aspect of heat energy.
MEASUREMENT OF AIR
TEMPERATURE:
• It is measured by means of thermometer housed in a
special wooden box called STEVENSON SCREEN
• STEVENSON SCREEN /INSTRUMENT SHELTER is a
meteorogical screen to shield instruments against
precipitation and direct heat radiation from outside
sources ,while still allowing air to circulate freely
around them.
• Screen is painted white and mounted on wooden
supports fixed at about 1.22m above ground level.
• Screen is setup with its door facing north to minimise
sunlight entry

• Maximum and minimum thermometers are
placed in horizontal position on upper and
lower sides of wooden box and bulb end rest
at an a angle of 2degrees to horizontal plane.
• Common maximum thermometer is mercury
in glass thermometer
• Common minimum thermometer is alcohol in
glass thermometer.
• Dry and wet bulb thermometer are kept
vertical on left and right sides
• In maximum thermometer, when temperature
increases it pushes mercury beyond constriction.
• When temperature decreases mercury in bulb
contracts but thread of mercury cannot fall back
due to constriction.
• In minimum thermometer, when temperature
falls and alcohol contracts, index will be dragged
towards bulb by surface of alcohol meniscus
• When temperature increases, alcohol will flow
over index with its remains static , so end of index
nearest to meniscus indicates lowest
temperature.
• DRY BULB THERMOMETER: It measures
temperature of air measured by thermometer
freely exposed to air,but shielded from
radiation and moisture.
• WET BULB THERMOMETER: It measures
temperature read by thermometer covered in
water soaked cloth over which air is passed.
• Difference between both gives Relative
humidity.
MEASUREMENT OF SOIL
TEMPERATURE:
• SOIL THERMOMETER:
For a depth of 50 cms depth,it is usually
measured by mercury in glass thermometer.
• GRASS MINIMUM THERMOMETER:
It is used for measuring actual minimum
temperature experienced by plants near ground
surface.
• It is liquid in glass thermometer where liquid is
alcohol
• When instrument measures 30degree F it means
ground frost is observed
SOLAR RADIATION
• Solar radiation is radiant energy emitted by
sun particularly electromagnetic energy.
About half of radiation is in visible shortwave
part of electromagnetic spectrum and
remaining part is mostly seen in near IR region
with some in ultravoilet region of
electromagnetic spectrum.
Different instruments for
measurement of solar radiation:
• PYRANOMETER (PYREHELIOMETER) is used for
measuring total incoming radiation.
Working principle :
• A pyranometer is operated based on
measurement of temperature differences
between a clear surface and dark surface.
• Black coating on thermopile sensor absorbs
solar radiation while clear surface reflects it
and hence less heat is absorbed.
Different types of pyranometers:
• Eppley pyranometer
• Bellani pyra nometer
• Precision pyranometer
• Licor pyranometer
• Albedometer
• NET RADIOMETER: It is used for measuring net
radiation flux. There are 2sensors on sky and
earth.
sky sensor is used for measuring incoming
radiation and earth sensor is used for
measuring radiation and difference between
these two gives net radiation.
• QUANTUM SENSOR: It is used for measuring
photosynthetically active radiation
• SPECTRORADIOMETER: It measures solar
radiation in narrow wave bands at an interval
of 20micrometres bandwidth between 400-
1000 micrometres wavelength range
Relationship between plant morphology and
reflectance can be measured.
• INFRARED THERMOMETER: It measures
Infrared radiation in range of 8-14micrometer
Temperature of plant can be known even
without contact
Canopy temperature of crop can be
measured.
ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY
• Humidity refers to presence of water vapour
in atmosphere.
• Instruments used for measuring humidity:
1)Stationary psychrometer
2)Assmann psychrometer
3)Whirling psychrometer
4)Hair hygrometer
• Psychrometer is a hygrometer which measures
humidity and temperature simultaneously by
measurement of drybulb temperature and
wetbulb temperature.
It consists of 2 thermometers
1)Wet bulb thermometer
2)Dry bulb thermometer
HAIR HYGROMETER: Certain hygroscopic materials
like human hair, animal
membranes,wood,paper,undergo changes in
linear dimensions when they absorb moisture
from surrounding air . This change in linear
dimension is used as measurement of humidity
present in air
• WORKING OF SLING PSYCHROMETER:
• In order to measure the drybulb and wetbulb
temperature, the psychrometer frame-glass
covering-thermometer arrangement is rotated
at 5m/s to 10 m/s to get the necessary air
motion
• Accurate measurement of wet bulb
temperature is obtained only if air moves with
velocity around the wetwick . In order to get
this air velocity, it is being rotated
• If psychrometer is rotated for a short period,
then wet bulb temperature will not be proper.
• If it is rotated for a longer period, the wick will
get dried soon and the wet bulb temperature
will not be at its minimum value
CLOUD
• It is a visible aggregate of minute particles of
water/ice/both in free air. This aggregate may
include larger particles such as those present
in fumes , smoke /dust.
MEASUREMENT OF CLOUD BY CEILOMETER:
• It is a device that uses a laser or other light
source to determine height of a cloud base
• It can also be used to measure aerosol
concentration within atmosphere
CEILING BALLOON:
• It is used by meteorologist to determine
height of base of clouds above groundlevel
during daylight hours.
PRINCIPLE OF CEILING BALLOON:
• Ceiling ballon is a balloon with a known ascent
rate (how fast it climbs ) and determining how
long balloon rises untilit disappears in to
cloud.
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE:
• Pressure exerted by earths atmosphere at any
given point on earths surface
• It is a value of standard/normaal atmospheric
pressure, equivalent to pressure exerted by a
column of mercury of 29.99 inches(760mm
high)
MEASUREMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE:
• Most accurate instrument used for measuring
atmospheric pressure is mercurial barometer.
PRINCIPAL OF MERCURIAL BAROMETER:
• It works on the principle of balancing a
column of air against a column of mercury in a
sealedtube
• Different types of barometer:
1)Fortin barometer
2)Aneroid barometer
3)Kew pattern barometer
4)Altitude barometer(altimeter)
WIND
• Air in motion , in response to pressure
gradient in atmosphere is called wind.
• Temperature variation is main cause of wind
MEASUREMENT OF WIND DIRECTION:
• It can be obtained with wind vane .
• It has a broad arrow head mounted on ball
bearings to enable arrow to move freely in
horizontal plane to indicate direction of wind.
• Below movable system ,there are 8 fixed rigid
bars ,which are set to 8 directions.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF WIND VANE:
• To determine wind direction , a wind vane
spins and points in the direction from which
the wind is coming and generally has 2 parts:
one that is usually shaped like an arrow and
turns in to the wind and other that is wider so
that it catches the breeze.
MEASUREMENT OF WIND SPEED
• Speed of wind can be measured using a tool
called ANEMOMETER.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ANEMOMETER:
• When the wind blows , the cups rotate
and subsequently the spindle also
rotates. The rotations of the spindle give
us the wind speed.
Different types of anemometers:
1)Cup anemometer
2)Hand held digital anemometer
3)Hotwire anemometer
4)Laser doppler anemometers
5)Ultrasonic anemometers
6)Acoustic resonance anemometer
7)Ping pong ball anemometer
ROBINSONS CUP ANEMOMETER:
• It consists of three or four hemispherical cups
mounted on horizontal arms which were
mounted on a vertical shaft. The air flow past
the cups in any horizontal direction turned the
shaft at a rate that was proportional to wind
speed. So, counting the turns of the shaft over
a set period produced a value proportional to
average wind speed for a wide range of
speeds.
PRECIPITATION:
• It is water in liquid or solid forms,falling to the
earth.
• Common precipitation forms are
rain,drizzle,snow,sleet and hail.
The refined receptacles for meauring rainfall
are called rainguages.
• Commonly used instruments for measuring
rainfall are:
1)Non recording rain guage(ordinary rain
guage)
2)Recording rain guage
Non recording rain guage:
• Most comonly used rainguage by meteorologist is
SYMONS RAINGUAGE.
Symons rain guage:
• It consists of a funnel with a circular rim of
12.7cms diameter and a glass bottle as a
receiver.it is fixed vertically to masonary
foundation with the level rim 30.5cms above the
ground surface. The rain falling intofunnel Is
collected in the receiver and is measured In a
special measuring glass graduated everyday at
8:30 hrs. It gives only total depth of rainfall but
not intensity of rainfall.
RECORDING RAIN GUAGE
1)Tipping bucket rainguage
2)Weighing rainguage
3)Capacitance rainguage
4)Optical rainguage
TIPPING BUCKET TYPE RAIN GUAGE:
• To facilitate remote recording it is used
• In this a pair of tipping buckets is placed below the
funnel
• The bucket gets filled up by 0.25mm of rainfall and
immediately it tips and empties the water in to
chamber below. At that very instant other bucket
comes below the funnel to receive the rainwater.
• The tipping of the bucket actuates an electrical circuit
which moves a pointer to register the rainfall on a
graph.
• The water collected in chamber below could alo be
measured by a measuring jar.