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Jose Montero y Vidal Dr. T.H. Pardo de Tavera Gov. Gen.

Rafael De Izquierdo JOHN N SCHUMACHER SJ

Cavite Mutiny of 1872


Learning Outcomes
- Discuss the event during the Cavite Mutiny
of 1872
- Relate the event (Cavite Mutiny) to Rizal’s
life
CAVITE MUTINY
• The Cavite mutiny of 1872 was an uprising of Filipino
military personnel of Fort San Felipe, the Spanish arsenal in
Cavite
• Around 200 locally recruited colonial troops and laborers rose up
in the belief that it would elevate to a national uprising. The
mutiny was unsuccessful, and government soldiers executed
many of the participants and began to crack down on a
burgeoning Philippines nationalist movement.
CAVITE MUTINY
• The uprising also resulted in the unjust implication and
the tragic execution by garrote of Filipino priests Mariano
Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora on February
17, 1872.
• Many scholars believe that the Cavite Mutiny of 1872
was the beginning of Filipino nationalism that would
eventually lead to the Philippine Revolution of 1896.
CAVITE MUTINY
• Some authors describe it as local mutiny.
• To some this was instigate by the friars as to implicate
the Filipino Priest headed by Jose Burgos.
• Many scholars believe that the Cavite Mutiny of 1872
was the beginning of Filipino nationalism that would
eventually lead to the Philippine Revolution of 1896.
Fort San Felipe Neri sa Cavite, pinagganapan ng Motin de Cavite. Mula kay Arnaldo Dumindin.
PREPARATION FOR MUTINY
• The revolt have been planned as early as
November or December 1871.
• Sgt. Bonifacio Octavo met Zaldua and
Lamadrid.
• In his meeting with Zaldua he was told that
those in Manila were also committed to
revolt.
PREPARATION FOR MUTINY
• Secret meetings have been made in the
house of D. Joaquin Pardo de Tavera,
Jacinto Zamora and D. Mariano Gomez to
plan the Mutiny.
• Francisco Zaldua recruited the soldiers in
Cavite promising with wealth, promotion and
rank as well as that the priest and the
lawyers are behind with the revolt.
BATTLE
• Their leader was Fernando La Madrid, a mestizo
Sergeant. They seized Fort San Felipe and killed eleven
Spanish officers. The mutineers thought that soldiers in
Manila would join them in a concerted uprising, the signal
being the firing of rockets from the city walls on that night.
Unfortunately, what they thought to be the signal was
actually a burst of fireworks in celebration of the feast of
Our Lady of Loreto, the patron of Sampaloc.
- According to Izquierdo, A navy has given him a confidential letter containing a
plan of revolt.
- Bonifacio Octavo, a sergeant pledged to revolt, repented his role and was
investigated.
- The event was not isolated but part of a wider conspiracy that in its planning.
- Regiments I & 2 together with the artillery garrisoning Manila.
• Revolts was to begin between 8 to 9pm
- Manila will signal cavite through skyrockets
- Cavite mistook fireworks from sampaloc fiesta
- The plan was to set fire in tondo while authorities are busy
- Infantry stationed in Fort Santiago, manila would Signal Cavite by means of
canon shots
- All spaniards must be killed including the friars except women
• Cavite – 500 men under Chief Casimiro Camerino
• - 300 men held back

- 1am isquierdo got the news of revolt


- A spanish seargent discovered the plot through his lover and told
Izquierdo
- Izquierdo warned the troop and instilling fear into them
- 2 spanish lieutenants were arrested, Morquecho and Jose
Montesinos
- Izquierdo was reluctant to admit that spaniards joined the revolt
• News of the mutiny reached Manila, the Spanish authorities
feared for a massive Filipino uprising. The next day, a
regiment led by General Felipe Ginoves besieged the fort
until the mutineers surrendered. Ginoves then ordered his
troops to fire at those who surrendered including La Madrid.
• The rebels were formed in a line, when Col.
Sabas asked who would not cry out, "Viva
Espana", and shot the one man who stepped
forward. The remainder were sent to prison
REVOLTS AFTERMATH
• Paraiso, Inocencio and de los Reyes were
the moving force behind the revolt and they
are the true instigators (Schumacher)
• Instead of these three conspirators should
executed Izquierdo mistakenly executed the
GOMBURZA, fearing to provoke an
international conflict.
REVOLTS AFTERMATH

• “Nabigo ang pag-aalsa dahil sa napaghandaan na rin ni


Izquierdo ang pag-aalsa dahil sa ilang mga sulat na walang
lagda na nagsusumbong sa mga plano at nang makumbinsi
niya ang ilan sa mga sasama sana sa rebelyon na huwag nang
tumuloy. Ang mga tunay na utak ng pag-aalsa ay hindi ang
tatlong paring martir na binitay kundi ang mga mason na sina
Máximo Inocencio, Crisanto de los Reyes, at Enrique Paraíso
na kasama sa mga naipatapon lamang.”
REVOLTS AFTERMATH

• Bakit kaya hindi rin sila binitay? Suspetsa ni Schumacher,


ito ay dahil kapwa mason ang tatlong utak ng rebelyon at
ang Gobernador Heneral! Maaari ring ginamit ng mga nag-
organisa ng pag-aalsa na si Francisco Zaldúa, na ginarote
ng mga Espanyol kasama ang tatong pari matapos ang
isang buwan, ay ginamit ang pangalan ni Burgos upang
makapanghikayat.” XIAO CHUA aired in Telebisyon ng
Bayan, Xiaotime.
Sina Crisanto de
los Reyes,
Máximo
Inocencio at
Enrique Paraíso
habang
ipinapatapon
matapos ang
Motin de Cavite.
Larawang-guhit
mula sa
Geronimo
Benernger de
los Reyes
(GBR) Museum.
BACK STORY
• During the short trial, the captured mutineers testified against Father José
Burgos. The state witness, Francisco Zaldua, declared that he had been told
by one of the Basa brothers that the government of Father Burgos would
bring a fleet of the United States to assist a revolution with which Ramon
Maurente, the supposed field marshal, was financing with 50,000 pesos. The
heads of the friar orders held a conference and decided to dispose Burgos by
implicating him to a plot. One Franciscan friar disguised as Father Burgos
and suggested a mutiny to the mutineers. The senior friars used an una
fuerte suma de dinero or a first class dinner to convince Governor-General
Rafael de Izquierdo that Burgos is the mastermind of the coup. Gomez and
Zamora are close to Burgos so they are included anyway
RIZAL AND GOMBURZA
• In the cold, gray dawn of the 17th of February, 1872,
people started to gather on the grassy field
of Bagumbayan (now Rizal Park)south of Intramuros. At
first, they were mostly Spanish soldiers and the Guardia
Civil in their fine uniforms, officeholders and letrados in
suits, rotund friars withtheir sacristans, principalia in short
black jackets worn over untuckedbaro. They were in
afestive mood for they had come to witness a public
execution, always a fiesta in the Spanish establishment.
RIZAL AND GOMBURZA
• In 1872, Rizal was 11; Bonifacio, 7; Mabini, 8;Aguinaldo,
3; They became the soul and muscle of the Revolution.
• In 1891, Jose Rizal dedicated El Filibusterismo to three
Filipino priests executed by the Spanish government in
1872. They were Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and
Jacinto Zamora. And as Filipinos are wont to contract or
abbreviate words, like Noli Me Tangere into Noli, these
three martyrs are more popularly known as Gomburza.
RIZAL AND GOMBURZA
• Gomburza was not only an inspiration for Rizal but for
Bonifacio and many Katipuneros as well. Many carried, as
relics, black cloth ribbons said to have been fashioned out
of the soutanes worn by the three priests at death.
It has been said that had the Cavite Mutiny and Gomburza
not happened, Jose Rizal's life would have taken a different
direction. His dedication of the impact the El
Filibusterismo to the three priests indicates event had on
his consciousness
VIEWS OF DIFF. AUTHORS ABOUT
THE CAVITE MUTINY
Vidal:
The Spanish revolution which overthrew
a secular throne gave rise among certain
Filipinos to the idea of attaining their
independence.
According to Vidal, this is an insurrection
and conspiracy influenced by the following:
- Spanish revolution which overthrew a secular throne
- Propaganda against Monarchial principles
- Democratic and Republican books and pamphlets
- Speeches and preachings of new ideas
- American publicists and criminal policy
These influences triggered certain
Filipinos to develop an idea of attaining
independence.

To attain the goal of becoming


independent, they started to work with the
powerful assistance of the native clergy.
Vidal:
Based on the anonymous
communication, there would be an outbreak
of a great uprising.
(assassination of all Spaniards/
friars)
Vidal:
The conspiracy had been going on since
the days of La Torre with utmost secrecy.
Example of these are the Secret Meetings in the
house of D. Joaquin Pardo de Tavera, Jacinto Zamora
and D. Mariano Gomez.
Vidal:
According to him, it is a conspiracy
which involved native soldiers as well as
multitude of civilians.
Izquierdo: There were Instigators of the
insurrection.
As quoted:
“It was seem definite that the INSURRECTION
was MOTIVATED and PREPARED by the NATIVE
CLERGY, MESTIZOS, NATIVE LAWYERS, and
ABOGADILLOS. Some were residents of Manila, Cavite
and nearby provinces”
Izquierdo:
According to him, Cavite Mutiny is a
CRIMINAL PROJECT and they use the
following inducements:
1. staged protests against injustice of the
government in bandala, usury, polo, and tribute.
Izquierdo: (Continuation)

2. seduced the native troops


3. offered wealth, employment, and rank
Izquierdo:
As quoted:
“This uprising has roots, and with them were
affiliated to a great extent the regiments of infantry and
artillery, many civilians and a large number of mestizos,
indios and some ilustrados from the provinces.”
Izquierdo:
PLAN: to establish a monarchy or republic
As quoted:
“The Indios have no word in their language to
describe this different form of government…. but it
turns out that they would place at the head of the
government priests, and there were great probabilities
… D. Jose Burgos or D. Jacinto Zamora.”
• Izquierdo:
PLAN: Uprising(execution/confiscation/details)

As quoted:
“There existed in Manila a junta or center that sought
and found followers; and that as a pretext they had
established a society for the teaching of arts and trades… I
suspended it indirectly…”
Izquierdo:

According to him, the instigators of Cavite Mutiny


were inspired by the following:
• Madrid
• Newspapers of advanced ideas (El Eco Filipino)
• Subscription
Tavera:
Cavite Mutiny is not a grand conspiracy but
merely a labor issue.

According to him:
Gen. Izquierdo’s first official act to abolish the
exemption privilege particularly from force labor and
tribute caused the dissatisfaction and discontent of the
workmen in the arsenal.
Tavera:

Government policy: CROSS & SWORD


- prohibition of the founding of school of
arts and trades
- personas sospechosas (person who
refused
to servilely obey the whims of the
authorities)
According to Tavera:

“The peace of the colony was broken by a


certain incident, though unimportant in itself,
was probably the origin of the POLITICAL
AGITATION which was constantly growing for
30 years, and culminated in the overthrow of
the Spanish sovereignty in the Philippine
islands.”
Tavera:
Cavite Mutiny was a powerful lever by the
Spanish residents and the friars.
- colonial modus vivendi
- secession
- threat to Spanish sovere
Tavera:
REPRESSIVE MEASURES – STRICT AND SUDDEN
“No attempt has been made to ascertain whether or
not the innocent suffered with the guilty.”
“The punishments mete out were unjust and
unnecessary.”
Tavera:
According to him:

“Persecution served as a stimulus and an


educational force which nursed the rebellion in
secret and the passive resistance to the
abuses became greater day by day.”
Tavera:

Persecuted & punished without distinction


• Condemned to death
• Life imprisonment
• Terrorized the Filipinos
Resolution
Let us go where the leaves never move without the will of God."
Jacinto Zamora
"What crime have I committed to deserve such a death? Is there no justice in the
world?"
Twelve friars restrained him, advising him to accept Christian death. he calmed
down but go up again shouting:
"But I haven't committed any crime!"
At which point, one of the friars holding him down hissed, "Even Christ was
innocent!"
References:
- nhcp.gov.ph
- document 301, jose Montero Y Vidal Account
- Dr. Pardo de Tavera Account , document 301
- Official Report of Izquierdo
SCHUMACHER CONCLUDED THAT:
1. The revolt in Cavite was not a mere mutiny,
but part of a planned separatist revolution.

2. The revolution as a whole failed because of


the defection of the committed Filipino
troops.

3. The planners of the revolution were


Inocencio, de los Reyes, and Paraiso.
4. Although sentenced to death, they were
secretly committed by Izquierdo for being
fellow Masons.

5. The immediate instigators in Cavite were


Zaldua and Sergeant Lamadrid.

6. The three priests executed had nothing to


do with the revolt.
7. Nor did the priests, lawyers, and
businessmen banished to the Marianas
have anything to do with it.

8. The accounts stemming from Antonio


Regidor, although containing many
factual names and events, are not
reliable narratives of the revolt and its
causes.
Facts (continued…)
9. The removal of the exemption of
arsenal workers from the tribute and
compulsory labor was not the cause
of revolt even though it may
contributed to it.

10. Neither arsenal workers nor any


naval personnel took part in the
revolt.
Factors that doomed the revolt:

a. The regiments were never really


committed to the revolt.

b. The rallying of the regiments by


Col. Sawa in Cavite, and by
Izquierdo himself in Manila.
Factors that doomed the revolt: (cont.)

c. The fact that Izquierdo had been


alerted to the coming revolt by very
explicitly anonymous letters;

d. The alert action of Carballo by


blocking by sea the men from Bacoor.

e. It is clear that there was a little support


for a national revolution at that time.
Thank you!