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FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMIC

FOR A CONTROL VOLUME


(OPEN SYSTEM)
NERACA MASSA (MASS BALANCE)
PADA OPEN SYSTEM

𝐶ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔
= −
𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑆𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑆𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚

msystem = min - mout


𝑑𝑚𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑡
= -
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
WHAT IF THERE ARE MANY
INLETS AND OUTLETS ?

HOW’S MASS BALANCE EQUATION ???


ENERGY BALANCE OF OPEN
SYSTEM
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑠 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑠
= -
𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚

dECV/dt = (dm1/dt) E1 + δQ/δt – (dm2/δt)E2 - δW/δt


dECV/dt = (dm1/dt ) (h1 + V21/2 + gz1) + δQ/δt – (dm2/dt)( h2 + V22/2 +
gz2) - δW/δt
We can also write this equation as mentioned here
AGAIN...., WHAT IF THERE ARE
MANY INLETS AND OUTLETS ?

HOW’S ENERGY BALANCE EQUATION ???


Example

■ Saturated water at 600 kPa (u = 820 kJ/kg, h = 830 kJ/kg) is


injected into saturated steam at pressure of 1400 kPa (u =
2590 kJ/kg, h = 2790 kJ/kg). If the mixing process is
accomplished at constant pressure and the mixing ratio of
water to steam is 1 : 10 by mass, find the enthalpy of the
mixture. Assume steady state and adiabatic mixing
STEAM TURBINE

■ Steam enters a turbine operating at steady state with a mass


flow rate of 4600 kg/h. The turbine develops a power output
of 1000 kW. At the inlet, the pressure is 60 bar, the
temperature is 400 oC, and the velocity is 10 m/s. At the exit,
the pressure is 0,1 bar, the quality is 0.9 (90%), and the
velocity is 50 m/s. Calculate the rate of heat transfer between
the turbine and surrounding, in kW.
COMPRESSOR

■ Air enters a compressor operating at steady state at a


pressure of 1 bar, a temperature of 290 K, and a velocity of 6
m/s through an inlet with an area of 0.1 m2. At the exit, the
pressure is 7 bar, the temperature is 450 K, and the velocity
is 2 m/s. Heat transfer from the compressor to its
surroundings occurs at a rate of 180 kJ/min. Employing the
ideal gas model, calculate the power input to the compressor,
in kW
STEAM NOZZLE / DIFUSSER

■ Steam enters a converging-diverging nozzle operating at


steady state with p1 = 40 bar, T1 = 400 oC, and the velocityof
10 m/s. The steam flows through the nozzle with negligible
heat transfer and no significant change in potential change in
potential energy. At the exit, p2 = 15 bar, and the velocity is
665 m/s. The mass flow rate is 2 kg/s. Determine the exit
area of the nozzle, in m2
POWER PLANT CONDENSER

■ Steam enters the condenser of a vapor power plant at 0.1 bar


with a quality of 0.95 and condensate exits at 0.1 bar and 45 oC.
Cooling water enters the condenser in a separate stream as a
liquid at 20 oC and exits as a liquid at 35 oC with no change in
pressure. Heat transfer from the outside of the condenser and
change in the kinetic and potential energy of the flowing streams
can be ignored. For steady state operation, determine
a) The ratio of the mass flow of the cooling water to the mass
flow rate of the condensing stream
b) The rate of energy from the condensing steam to the
cooling water, in kJ of steam passing through the
condenser
MEASURING STEAM QUALITY

■ A supply line carries a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture of


steam at 20 bars. A small fraction of the flow in the line is
diverted through a throttling calorimeter and exhausted to the
atmosphere at 1 bar. The temperature of the exhaust steam
is measured as 120 oC. Determine the quality of the steam in
the supply line
WITHDRAWING STEAM FROM A TANK AT
CONSTANT PRESSURE

■ A tank having a volume of 0.85 m3 initially contains water as


two-phase liquid-vapor mixture at 260 oC and a quality of 0.7.
Saturated water vapor at 260 oC is slowly withdrawn through
a pressure regulating valve at the top of the tank as energy is
transferred by heat to maintain the pressure constant in the
tank. This continues until the tank is filled with saturated
vapor at 260 oC. Determine the amount of heat transfer, in kJ.
Neglect all kinetic and potential energy effect.