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UTILIZATION

OF
ASSESSMENT
DATA
LEARNING OUTCOMES;
the students should be able to:
1. Apply statistics in research and in any systematic
investigation;
2. Construct frequency distribution for a given set of scores;
3. Graph the scores using histogram and frequency distribution
4. Calculate the mean, median, median and mode, decile,
quartile, and percentile of the student’s scores;
5. Identify the different properties of the measure of central
tendency;
6. Identify the uses of the different measures of variability;
7. Calculate the and make an analysis of range, mean
deviation, quartile deviation, variance and standard
deviation of given scores;
8. Differentiate standard deviation
from coefficient of variation;
9. Identify the properties of the
different measures of variability;
10. Apply the concept of skewness in
identifying the performance of the
students;
11. Determine the spread of scores
using the measure of variation;
12. Compare the performance of the
students using measures of central
tendency and measures of variability;
13. Convert raw scores to standard
scores;
14. Determine the relationship of two
groups of scores; and
15. Compute r and p value of scores
and make an analysis.
 ASSESSMENT- it is involves the use of
empirical data on student learning to
refine programs and improve student
learning. It is the process of defining,
selecting, designing, collecting,
analyzing, interpreting, and using
information to increase student’s
learning and development.
DEFINITION OF STATISTICS
- Is a branch of science,
which deals with the
collection, presentation,
analysis, and interpretation
of quantitative data.
BRANCHES OF STATISTICS

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
- Is a method concerned with
collecting, describing and analyzing
a set of data without drawing
conclusions for inferences about a
large group.
 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
-Is a branch of statistics
concerned with analysis of a
subset of data leading to
predictions or inferences
about the entire set of data.
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

Is a tabular arrangement of data into


appropriate categories showing the number of
observations in each category or group. There
are two major advantages:
1.It encompasses the size of the table; and
2.It makes the data more interpretive.
PARTS OF FREQUENCY TABLE
1. CLASS LIMIT- is the grouping or categories defined by the
lower and upper limits.
example: LL – UL
10 – 14
15 – 19
20 – 24
Lower class limit (LL)- represents the smallest number in each
group.
Upper class limit (UL)- represents the highest number in each
group
2. Class size- is the width of each class interval
example:
LL – UL
10 – 14 *the class size in this score
distribution is 5.
3. Class boundaries- are the numbers used to
separate each category in the frequency distribution
but without gaps created by the class limits. The
scores of the students are discrete. Add 0.5 to the
upper limit to get the upper class boundary and
subtract 0.5 to the lower limit to get the lower
class boundary in each group or category.
Example; LL – UL LCB - UCB
10 – 14 9.5 - 14.5
15 – 19 14.5 - 19.5
20 – 24 19.5 - 24.5

4. Class marks- the midpoint of the lower and upper class


limits. The formula is XM = LL+UL
2
Example; LL – UL XM
10 – 14 12
15 – 19 17
20 – 24 22
STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
1.Compute the value of the range(R). RANGE
is the difference between the highest
score and the lowest score. R=HS-LS
Determine the class size. The class size
is the quotient when you divide the range by
the desired number of classes or categories.
The desired number of classes are usually 5,
10 or 15 and they depend on the number of
classes is not identified, find the value of
k, where k=1+3.3 log n.
2. Set up the class limits of each class or
category. Each class defined by the lower
limit and upper limit. Use the lowest score
as the lower limit of the first class.
3. Set up the class boundaries if needed. Use
the formula;
LL of the second class-UL of the first class cb=
2

4. Tally the scores in the appropriate


classes.
5. Find the other parts if necessary such as class marks,
among others.
example; raw scores of 40 students in a 50 item mathematics
quiz. Construct a frequency distribution following the steps
given previously.

17 25 30 33 25 45 23 19
27 35 45 48 20 38 39 18
44 22 46 26 36 29 15-LS 21
50-HS 47 34 26 37 25 33 49
R22=HS-LS 33 44 38 46 41 37 32
=50-15
R =35
n =40
Solve the value of K.
K = 1+3.2log n
K =1+3.3lg 40
K =1+3.3(1.602059991)
K =1+5.286797971
K =6.286797971
Find the class size
c.i = R/K
C.i = 35/6
c.i = 5.833
c.i = 6
Construct the class limit starting with the lowest
score as the lower limit of the first category. The
last category should contain the highest score in the
distribution. Each category should contain 6 as the
size of the width (x). Count the number of scores
that falls in each category (f).
x tally frequency (f)
15-20 //// 4
21-26 ///////// 9
27-32 /// 3
33-38 ////////// 10
39-44 //// 4
45-50 ////////// 10/n=40
Find the class boundaries and class marks
of the given score distribution.
x f class boundaries xm
15-20 4 14.5-20.5 17.5
21-25 9 20.5-26.5 23.5
27-32 3 26.5-32.5 29.5
33-38 10 32.5-38.5 35.5
39-44 4 38.5-44.5 41.5
10
______
45-50 n=40 44.5-50.5 47.5
Graphical representation of Scores
in Frequency Distribution
-the scores expressed in frequency
distribution can be meaningful and easier
to interpret when they are graphed. There
are methods of graphing frequency
distribution; bar graph or histogram and
frequency polygon and smooth curve. Bar
graph or histogram and frequency
distribution will be discussed in this
section while smooth curve will be
discussed in the skewness.
HISTOGRAM –consists of a set of rectangles having
basis on the horizontal axis which centers at the class
marks. The base widths correspond to the class size and
the height of the rectangles corresponds to the class
frequencies. Histogram is best used for graphical
representation of discrete data or non-continuous data.
FREQUENCY POLYGON –is constructed by plotting the class
marks against the class frequencies. The x-axis
corresponds to the class marks and the y-axis
corresponds to the class frequencies. Connect the points
consecutively using a straight line. Frequency polygon
is best used in representing continuous data such as the
scores of students in a given test.
Construct a histogram and frequency polygon
using the frequency distribution of 40
students in a 50-item mathematics quiz
previously discussed.
x frequency (f)
15-20 4
21-26 9
27-32 3
33-38 10
39-44 4

34-50 10/n=40
FREQUENCY POLYGON
5 6

4.5
5
4

3.5
4
3

2.5 3

2
2
1.5

1
1
0.5

0 0
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4

Series 1 Series 2 Series 3


DESCRIBING GROUP PERFORMANCE
-the assessed performance of the group:
measures of central tendency and measures of
variability. Measures of central tendency
are used to determined the average score of
a group of scores while measures of
variability indicate the spread of scores in
the group. These two concepts are very
important and helpful in understanding the
performance of There are two major concepts
in describing the group.
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
-it provides very convenient way of describing a
set of scores with a single number that describes
the performance of the group. It is also defined as
a single value that is used to describe the “center”
of the data. It is thought of as a typical value in
a given distribution. There are commonly used
measures of central tendency.
- These are the Mean, Median and Mode. In this
section, we shall discuss how to compute the value
and some of the properties of the mean, median, and
mode as applied in a classroom setting.
1.MEAN- is the most commonly used measure of the
center of data and it is also referred as the
“arithmetic average.”
Computation of Population Mean

µ = ∑x/N = X1+X2+X3+…Xn/N
Computation of Sample Mean

ẋ = ∑x/N = = X1+X2+X3+…Xn/N

Computation of the Mean for Ungrouped Data


1. ẋ = ∑x/n 2. . ẋ = ∑fx/n
Example; scores of 15 students in
Mathematics I quiz consist of 25
items. The highest score is 25 and
the lowest score is 10. and here
are the scores: 25, 10 18, 18, 17,
15, 15, 15, 14, 13, 12, 12, 10,
10. Find the mean in the following
scores.
x(scores)

25

20

18 ẋ = ∑x / n = 228 / 15 = 15.2
18

17

15

15

15

14

14

13

12

12

10

10

∑x = 228 / n = 15
Analysis:
- the average performance of 25 students
who participated in a mathematics quiz
consisting of 25 items is 15.2. The
implications of this is that students who got
scores below 15.2 did not perform well in the
said examination. Students who got scores
higher than 15.2 performed well in the
examination compared to the performance of
the whole class.
MEAN FOR GROUPED DATA
GROUPED DATA- are the data or scores that are
arranged in a frequency distribution.
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION- is the arrangement of scores
according to category of classes including the
frequency.
FREQUENCY- is the number of observations falling in
a category.
for this particular lesson we shall discuss only
one formula in solving the mean for grouped data
which is called midpoint method. The formula is:
ẋ = ∑fxm / n
Where;
x = mean value
f = frequency in each class or category
Xm = midpoint of each class or category
∑fXm = summation of the product of fXm
Steps in Solving Mean for Grouped Data
1.Find the midpoint or class mark (Xm) of each
or category using the formula Xm = LL + UL /
2
2.Multiply the frequency and the corresponding
class mark fXm.
3.Find the sum of the of the results in step 2.
4.Solve the mean using the formula ẋ = ∑fXm / n
Example;scores of 40 students in a science class
consist of 60 items and they are tabulated below.
x f Xm fXm
10-14 5 12 60
15-19 2 17 34
20-24 3 22 66
25-29 5 27 135
30-34 2 32 64
35-39 9 ẋ37= ∑fXm / 2 333
40-44 6 42 252
45-49 3 47 141
ẋ = 1345 / 40
50-54 5 52 260
N = 40 ∑fXm = 1345
Analysis:
-the mean performance of 40
students in science quiz is 33.
63. Those students who got scores
below 33.63 did not perform well
in the said examination while
those students who got scores
above 33.63 performed well.
Properties of the Mean
1. It measures stability. Mean is the most stable among other
measures of central tendency because every scores
contributes to the value of the mean.
2. The sum of each scores distance from the mean is zero.
3. It is easily affected by the extreme scores.
4. It may not be an actual score in the distribution.
5. It can be applied to interval level of measurement.
6. It is very easy to compute.
When to use the Mean
7.Sampling stability is desired
8.Other measures are to be computed such as standard
deviation, coefficient of variation and skewness.
2. MEDIAN- is the second type of measures of
central tendency. Median is what divides the scores
in the distribution in two equal parts. Fifty
percent (50%) lies below the median value and 50%
lies above the median value. It is also known as the
middle score or the 50th percentile. And for
classroom purposes, the first thing to do is to
arrange the scores in proper order. That is to
arrange the scores from the lowest score to highest
score or highest score to lowest score. When the
number cases are odd, the median is a score that has
the same number of scores below and above it. When
the scores are even, determine the average of the
two middle most scores that have equal number of
scores below and above it.
Median of Ungrouped Data
1.Arrange the scores (from lowest
to highest or highest to lowest).
2.Determine the middle most score
in a distribution if n is an odd
number and get the average of the
two middle most scores if n is an
even number.
find the median score of 7 students
Example 1;
in an English class.

x(scores) analysis;
19 the median score is 15. Fifty percent
17 (50%) or three of the scores are above 15
16 (19,17,16) and 50% or three of the scores
15 are below 15 (10,5,2)
10
5
2
Example 2. find the median score of 8 students in an English
class.
x(scores)
30 ẋ = 16+15
19 2
17 ẋ = 15.5
16 analysis: the median score is 15.5 which means
15 that 50% of the scores in the distribution are
10 lower than 15.5, those are 15,10,5, and 2; and
5 50% are greater than 15.5, those are 30,19,
2 17,16 which means four (4) scores are below
15.5 and four (4) scores are above 15.5.
Median of Grouped Data
Formula;
ẋ = median value
MC = median class is category containing the
n/2
LB = lower boundary of the median class (MC)
cfp = cumulative frequency before the median
class if the scores are arranged from lowest to
highest value.
fm = frequency of the median class
c.i = size of the class interval
Steps in Solving Median for Grouped Data

1.Complete the table for cf<


2.Get n/2 of the scores in the
distribution so that you can identify
MC.
3.Determine LB, cfp, fm and c.i
4.Solve the median using the formula
Examples; scores of 40 students in a science class consist of
60 items and they are tabulated below. The highest score is 54
and the lowest score is 10.

x f Cf<
10-14 5 5
15-19 2 7
20-24 3 10
25-29 5 15
30-34 2 17 (cfp)
35-39 9 26
40-44 6 32
45-49 3 35
50-54 5 40
N = 40
Properties of the Median
1.It may not be an actual observation in the data
set.
2.It can be applied in ordinal level.
3.It is not affected by extreme values because
median is a positional measure.

When to use the Median


4.The exact midpoint of the score distribution is
desired.
5.There are extreme scores in the distribution.
3. MODE- is the third measures of central
tendency. These mode or the modal score is a score
or scores that occurred most in the distribution. It
is classified as unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal and
multimodal.
Unimodal is a distribution of scores that consists
of only one mode.
Bimodal is a distribution of scores that consists of
two modes.
Trimodal is a distribution of scores that consists
of three modes. And
Multimodal is a distribution of scores that consists
of more than two modes.
Example; the score of 10 students in section A, B and section C.

Scores of Scores of Scores of


Section A Section B Section C
25 25 25
24 24 25
24 24 25
20 20 22
20 18 21
20 18 21
16 17 21
12 10 18
10 9 18
7 7 18
The score that appeared most in section A
is 20. Hence, the mode of section A is 20.
There is only one mode, therefore, score
distribution is called unimodal. The modes
of section B are 18 and 24, since both 18
and 24 appeared twice. There two modes in
section B. Hence, the distribution is a
bimodal distribution. The modes for
section C are 18,21, and 25. there three
modes for section C, therefore, it is
called a trimodal or multimodal
distribution.
Mode for grouped data
In solving the mode value using grouped data, use the formula;
ẋ = LB + _ D1____ C.i
d1+d2
LB = lower boundary of the modal class
Modal Class (MC) = is a category containing the highest frequency
d1 = difference between the frequency of the modal class and the
frequency above it, when the scores are arranged from lowest
to highest.
d2 = difference between the frequency of the modal class and
the frequency below it, when the scores are arranged from
lowest to highest.
c.i = size of the class interval
Examples; scores of 40 students in a science class consist of
60 items and they are tabulated below.

x f
10-14 5
15-19 2
20-24 3
25-29 5
30-34 2
35-39 9
40-44 6
45-49 3
50-54 5
n = 40
Model class = 35-39
LL of Mc
LB = 34.5
d1 = 9-2=7
d2 = 9-6=3 The mode of the score distribution that consists
c.i = 5 of 40 students is 38, because 38 occurred several
ẋ = LB + _d1 times.
d1+d2
= 34.5 +___7__ 5 = 34.5 + 35
7 + 3 10
ẋ = 34.5 + 3.5
ẋ = 38
Properties of the Mode
1.It can be used when the data are qualitative as
well as quantitative.
2.It may not be unique
3.It is not affected by extreme values
4.It may not exist
When to use the Mode
5.When the “typical” value is desired.
6.When the data set is measured on a nominal
scale.